Summary of Greek Moods
Moods show the relation of the action of the verb to reality.
— the mood of reality
- from the Latin indicatus, past participle of indicare, from in- + dicare — to proclaim
- asserts the denoted act or state as an objective fact
- may be either a statement or a question about what is factual and real.
- It does not follow that the statement is actually true, only that it is being asserted as true from the speaker's point of view
- asserted as true, as distinguished from what is wished for, hoped for, commanded, considered a possiblity, etc.
- Example: If someone says Jesus was only a good teacher, he is making a statement about reality from his point of view. It is therefore Indicative, though not actually true.
- The Indicative is the only mood in which tense has temporal (time) significance. The tense of non-indicative moods (all the following) signify aspect only (see note on Aspect below)
— the mood of command
- Latin imperativus, from imperatus, past participle of imperare to command
- expresses the will to influence the behavior of another
— the mood of possibility
- from the Latin subjunctivus, from subjunctus, past participle of subjungere — to join beneath, subordinate
- represents a denoted act or state not as fact but as contingent or possible
- its uses are many and varied in Greek, e.g. purpose clauses, 3rd class conditions, et al.
— the mood of wish
- from the Latin optativus, from optare to wish
- expresses wish or desire, e.g. 'μὴ γένοιτο'(may it never be!) in Romans 6.2
- The Optative is rare in NT Greek
- These 4 moods are called finite. The Infinitive, though sometimes classed as a mood, is actually a verbal noun
- Aspect is the kind of action denoted, relative to its progress, results, or simple occurrence