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ἵνα + the Subjunctive (BBG 31.14, Wallace pp. 471-477)

Purpose Clause (Telic)
  • ἵνα + the Subjunctive most often expresses purpose - “in order that…”
  • a.k.a. “Final” of “Telic” ἵνα, from τέλος “end, termination, conclusion”
  • negated with μή for non-idicative mood: ἵνα μή or ὅπως μή = “in order that not” i.e. “lest”
  • Examples
    • 1 John 2.1 - ταῦτα γράφω ὑμῖν ἵνα μὴ ἁμάρτητε. “I write these things to you in order that you may not (lest you) sin.
    • Hebrews 4.16 - προσερχώμεθα οὖν μετὰ παρρησίας τῷ θρόνῳ τῆς χάριτος, ἵνα λάβωμεν ἔλεος καὶ χάριν εὕρωμεν εἰς εὔκαιρον βοήθειαν. “in order that we may receive mercy and find grace…”
Result (Ecbatic)
  • expresses the result of the action of the main verb - “so that, with the result that”
  • a.k.a. “Consecutive” or “Ecbatic” from ἔκβασις (ἐκ = “out” + βασις = “a going”, ergo “a going out spot” hence “landing place”
  • Examples
    • John 9.2 - ῥαββί, τίς ἥμαρτεν, οὗτος ἢ οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ, ἵνα τυφλὸς γεννηθῇ; “Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, so that he was born blind?
  • there is not a clear demarcation between the Purpose and Result uses of ἵνα + the Subjunctive, rather it is a continuum. Some clauses carry the senses of both purpose and result.
    • e.g. John 3.16 - τὸν υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ ἔδωκεν, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν μὴ ἀπόληται ἀλλ’ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον. “in order that / with the result that all believing in Him would not perish, but that they may have eternal life.
  • ὅπως + the Subjunctive can also express purpose and/or result, e.g. Matthew 5.16
  • the ἵνα + Subjunctive clause functions like a noun
  • 4 uses
    • Subject - e.g. 1 Cor. 4.2 - ζητεῖται ἐν τοῖς οἰκονόμοις, ἵνα πιστός τις εὑρεθῇthat a man be found faithful is sought for in stewards.
    • Predicate Nominative - e.g. John 4.34 - ἐμὸν βρῶμά ἐστιν ἵνα ποιήσω τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πέμψαντός με καὶ τελειώσω αὐτοῦ τὸ ἔργον “my food is to do the will of Him who sent me and to complete his work”
    • Direct Object - e.g. Matthew 4.3 - εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰπὲ ἵνα οἱ λίθοι οὗτοι ἄρτοι γένωνται. “if you are the son of God, tell these stones that they become bread
    • Apposition
      • Explanatory, “namely, that
      • a weaker sense than purpose
      • e.g John 17.3 - αὕτη δέ ἐστιν ἡ αἰώνιος ζωὴ ἵνα γινώσκωσιν σὲ τὸν μόνον ἀληθινὸν θεὸν καὶ ὃν ἀπέστειλας Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν. - “This is etermal life that they may know You…”
      • this usage is very common in John’s writings
  • Clarifying detail for a preceding noun or adjective
  • “Epexegetical” from ἐπεξήγησις “detailed account, explanation, added to clarify meaning”
  • Examples
    • Luke 7.6 - οὐ γὰρ ἱκανός εἰμι ἵνα ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην μου εἰσέλθῃς· “I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof…”
  • completes the meaning of a helping verb like θέλω and δύναμαι.
  • e.g. Luke 6.31 - καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως “Just as you wish that men would do to you, do likewise to them
  • expresses a command or wish, use is rare
  • e.g. Matthew 20.33 - λέγουσιν αὐτῷ· κύριε, ἵνα ἀνοιγῶσιν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἡμῶν “they say to Him, ‘Lord, that our eyes be opened

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