BBG 36: Other athematics « PreviousNext » GRBG 2: John 15

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Class Procedure

  • Check homework, distribute quizzes
  • Questions on last week’s passage
  • Quiz
  • Short break
  • Work through text till end of class

This week’s text

1 John 1.1-2.2, 2.28-3.10

Conditional Clauses in Greek

  • There are four (or five) classes of conditions in Greek (BBG 35.5-8, GGBB 687-701, Smyth §2280-2368)
  • Conditions can be classified according to Form i.e. how the sentence is structured, or Function i.e. with reference to their meaning (Time, Fulfillment or not, Particular or General)

Conditions Classified by Form

Type Description Protasis (“if”) Apodosis (“then”)
First Class Condition of Fact
(assumed true)
εἰ + indicative any mood
any tense
Second Class Past Contrary to Fact εἰ + indicative indicative + ἄν
same tense as protasis
Third Class Future More Probable
Present General
ἐάν + subjunctive any mood
any tense
Fourth Class Future Less Probable εἰ + optative optative + ἄν

1st Class – Condition of Fact

  • Protasis: εἰ + indicative, any tense, negated by οὐ;
  • Apodosis: any mood, any tense
  • Assumed true for the sake of argument, not that it is actually true. A supposition of reality
    • This is important exegetically.
    • Example: 1 Corinthians 15.13 - εἰ δὲ ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν, οὐδὲ Χριστὸς ἐγήγερται·

2nd Class – Past Contrary to Fact

  • Protasis: εἰ + indicative, any tense, negated by μή;
  • Apodosis: indicative + ἄν, same tense as protasis
  • Assumed untrue for the sake of argument, presumed to be contrary to fact
  • Example: John 5.46 - εἰ γὰρ ἐπιστεύετε Μωϋσεῖ, ἐπιστεύετε ἂν ἐμοί·

3rd Class – Future More Probable

  • Protasis: ἐάν + subjunctive, any tense, negated by μή;
  • Apodosis: any mood, any tense
  • Future More Probable
    • Example: ταῦτά σοι πάντα δώσω, ἐὰν πεσὼν προσκυνήσῃς μοι. (Matthew 4.9)
  • Present General (a.k.a Fifth Class Condition)
    • Generic truth in present time
    • Example: John 11.9 - ἐάν τις περιπατῇ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, οὐ προσκόπτει

4th Class – Future Less Probable

  • Protasis: εἰ + optative, Present or Aorist
  • Apodosis: optative + ἄν, Present or Aorist
  • Example: 1 Peter 3.14 - ἀλλ᾿ εἰ καὶ πάσχοιτε διὰ δικαιοσύνην, μακάριοι.

Gram Sum

Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics

  • Review Conditional Sentences, pp. 689-701
  • Uses of ἵνα + the Subjunctive, pp. 471-477

Lexical Aids

  • Vocabulary > 50 occurrences
  • p.43 on suffixes forming abstract nouns, e.g. δικαιοσύνη
  • p.49 on ΑΓ

New Vocabulary

  • ἱλασμός - the means of forgiveness
  • ἱλαστήριον - the place where sins are forgiven. “the mercy seat”
    • Expiation or Propitiation

Though some traditional translations render ἱλαστήριον as ‘propitiation,’ this involves a wrong interpretation of the term in question. Propitiation is essentially a process by which one does a favor to a person in order to make him or her favorably disposed, but in the NT God is never the object of propitiation since he is already on the side of people. ἱλασμός and ἱλαστήριον denote the means of forgiveness and not propitiation. ~ Louw & Nida

  • παρρησία - from πᾶν + ρῆσις (speech) hence freedom in speaking, unreservedness in speech (Euripides, Plato, Demosthenes, others) in NT a state of boldness and confidence, sometimes implying intimidating circumstances — boldness, courage.
  • παρουσία - from παρειμί, to be beside, hence “presence”
  • πλανάομαι - to move about, without definite destination or particular purpose. Derivative “planet” cf. Jude 13, ἀστέρες πλανῆται

Scripture Memory

  • nothing new this week


  • Complete exegetical study of John 15.1-27
  • Prepare for quiz on 1 John 1.1-2.2, 2.28-3.10
    • vocabulary
    • questions from footnotes
    • grammatical / syntactical / exegetical questions from text, and Grammar Summary
    • English to Greek
  • All of the memory passages
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able
  • Try reading the sermon text in advance each week before the Lord’s Day

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας