Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

  • Return and review last week’s quiz.
  • Check and review workbook exercises 8, esp. translation
  • Mid-term exam is next week. Study workbook exercises, review quizzes, practice translation.
  • Questions on chapters 8: Prepositions, Inflection, et al.
  • Spatial diagram of prepositions also on p.80 of Lexical Aids
  • Review Chapter 8 Vocabulary
  • Chart of all Greek cases on p. 344
  • 5 components of parsing: Complete lexical form: nominative singular, genitive singular ending, definite article, lexical form, inflected meaning

Noun Rules 1-6 (7.12)

  1. Stem ending in α,η are 1st declension, ending in o are 2nd, consonantal are 3rd
  2. Neuters are always the same in Nominative and Accusative
  3. Almost all neuter plurals end in -α
  4. Iota always subscripts in Dative singular, if possible
  5. Vowels often change their length (Ablaut)
  6. Masculine and Neuter always the same in Genitive and Dative


Three functions of adjectives

Attributive - tells something about the word it modifies (9.2, 9.8)

  • the normal and most common use
  • the term modified is called the “head” term
  • Always agrees with nouns it modifies in case, gender and number, just like the article
    • this points us another reason why it is imperative to memorize the gender of all nouns, viz. so you know which form of an adjective to use.
    • Attributive position - follows the article, e.g.
      • 1st attributive position: ὁ ἀγαθός ἄνθρωπος
      • 2nd attributive position: ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ ἀγαθός (“the man, the good one”)
      • 3rd attributive position: ἄνθρωπος ὁ ἀγαθός (9.19)
  • But, if you see the article, but there is no noun to modify, then the adjective is…

Substantival - an adjective used as a noun. Does not modify anything. (9.3, 9.9)

  • Acts exactly like a noun, hence it’s function in the sentence is determined by its case
  • Its gender and number will be determined by what it stands for
  • Examples:
    • ἡ ἀγαθὴ ἐν Χριστῷ πιστεύει. (“The good woman trusts in Christ.”)
    • See Exegetical Insight, chapter 9, for example
    • τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς or ταῖς ἀγαθαῖς
    • πρῶτοι ἔσχατοι ἔσονται
  • Use of prepositional phrase with the article (9.14)

Predicate - asserts something about (predicates) the subject (9.4, 9.10)

  • Adjective is anarthrous (no article)
  • Used in Predicate Nominative construction
  • Verb to be is always present: explicitly or implicitly (stated or implied)
  • Predicate position - does not follow the article, e.g. ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἀγαθός (verb implied)

More about adjectives

  • Occurs in all 3 genders, just like the article - endings are very similar
  • Nouns only have 1 gender, adjectives must have all 3 so they can modify any noun, e.g.
    • We must able to say “the good woman” ἡ ἀγαθή as well as “the good man” ὁ ἀγαθός
    • What use of the adjective are the above?
  • Lexical Form: Nominative Masculine Singular, + the Nom. Fem. Sg ending, and Nom. Neut. Sg. ending.,
    • e.g. ἀγαθός, -ή, -όν
    • please correct 9.7 on p.65. Mounce follows this when he gives vocabulary
  • 2-ending adjectives e.g. αἰώνιος, -ον - the first ending is either masculine or feminine, determined by what it modifies. (9.15)
  • Paradigm of the Adjective (9.6) - follows almost exactly pattern for 1st and 2nd declension nouns, and the article
  • See Smyth on Adjectives

Other Greek Grammar

  • Articles followed by prepositions (9.14)
    • Translate usually as relative clauses.
    • e.g. οἱ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ - The men who are in the house
  • Neuter plural subjects (9.16)
    • Neuter plural subject usually use singular verbs, to indicate a group.
    • e.g.

New Vocabulary

  • Lexical Form of adjectives

Translation and Parsing - Practice in workbook exercises

Video Lectures


  • Continue to read Greek from the Greek New Testament
  • Workbook exercise 9 on Adjectives, and Review #2 on on chapters 6-9
  • How to prepare for mid-term exam next week covering chapters 1-9
    • At least 1/2 of the quiz will be translation and parsing
    • Use Review #2 as a trial test.
    • Redo translation and parsing exercises in workbook
    • Parse random words in your translations.
    • Review quizzes, and workbook exercises, esp. translation
    • Know all paradigms (master case endings, definite article, εἰμί)
    • Know 6 noun rules
    • Vocabulary - make sure you memorize the full lexical forms, know all the meanings for prepositions.

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας