Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

  • Return and review last week’s quiz.
  • Check and review workbook exercises 6
  • Questions on chapters 5-6: Inflection, Nominative and Accusative cases, Definite Article
  • Questions on workbook exercises
  • Review Chapter 6 Vocabulary
  • Quiz on chapters 5,6.
  • End of chapter 6
    • Meaning of “exegesis” - ἐξεγήσις
    • Double Accusative (when verbs require 2 objects to complete their meaning)

Generic Grammar

  • the possessive case
    • shows possession
    • in English ‘of’ before the word, or suffix ‘s
  • the indirect object
    • what is indirectly affected by the action of the verb
    • English keyword ‘to’

Greek Grammar

  • Chart of all Greek cases in BBG Appendix, under Noun System
  • Complete lexical form: nominative singular, genitive singular ending, definite article

Genitive Case

  • Functions: Possession, et al. (See Chart of cases in BBG Appendix, under Noun System)
  • from Old French genitif, -ive or Latin genitivus casus ‘(case) of production or origin,’ from gignere ‘beget.’
  • Key Word: “of”
  • Masculine and Neuter always the same
  • Plural is always ῶν
  • alpha declension nouns, with stems in alpha, will change to eta in genitive and dative singular, unless preceded by ε,ι,ρ (7.14)
  • Genitive singular often looks like Accusative plural, e.g. ὥρας
    • When would this not be true? See above.
    • You must determine by the article, and by context

Dative Case

  • Functions: Indirect Object, et al. (see p. 344 3rd ed.)
  • from Latin casus dativus ‘case of giving,’ from dat- ‘given,’ from the verb dare.
  • Key Words: ‘to’, ‘in’, ‘with’ et al.
  • As Indirect Object, the Dative case answers question “to whom” or “to what”
    • e.g. τῷ ἀποστὀλῷ τὸν βίβλιον ἔδωκεν.
  • Iota is always present in the case ending
    • -ι in the singular, (stem vowel lengthens, and iota subscripts)
      • in 1st declension: (α,η) -» ῃ
      • in 2nd declension: ο -» ῳ
    • -ις in the plural
  • Masculine and Neuter always the same

Paradigms - must be learned by heart

Definite Article (7.10)

Learn the full paradigm

Noun Rules 1-6 (7.12)

  1. Stem ending in α,η are 1st declension, ending in o are 2nd, consonantal are 3rd
  2. Neuters are always the same in Nominative and Accusative
  3. Almost all neuter plurals end in -α
  4. Iota always subscripts in Dative singular, if possible
  5. Vowels often change their length (Ablaut)
  6. Masculine and Neuter always the same in Genitive and Dative

Alternate First declension forms (7.14)

  • Shift from α to η in genitive and dative singular
  • RULE: 1st declension nouns with stems ending in α will shift to η in the genitive and dative singular, unless the preceding letter is: ρ, ι, or ε.
  • Examples: βασιλεία does not shift, δόξα does
  • YARTLLF = “Yet another reason to learn lexical forms!”
  • Know this rule

Partially Declined Words (7.13)

  • We discussed indeclinable words, taken into Greek from another tongue, e.g. Ἰσραήλ
  • Some words, also taken in from another language, are only partially declined, e.g. Ἰησοῦς

Exegetical Insight

Luke 2.14

δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις θεῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς εἰρήνη ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκία(ς).

  • difference between the nominative and the genitive (a single sigma)
    • Nominative: “Peace on earth; good will toward men”
    • Genitive: “On earth peace to men on whom his favor rests.”
  • a single letter also made a huge difference at the 1st Ecumenical Council at Nicaea in A.D. 325: ΟΜΟΟΥΣΙΟΣ means “same substance”, whereas the word ΟΜΟΙΟΥΣΙΟΣ means “similar substance”.
    • The Arians protested: “you would divide the church over a single iota?”

Video Lectures


  • Continue to read out loud, and practice parsing
  • Workbook exercise 7 on Genitive and Dative cases
  • Prepare for quiz next week on everything through chapter 7, specifically:
    • Functions and key words for all cases. (BBG Appendix on Greek Cases)
    • Full paradigm for 1st and 2nd declension case endings (7.8) - add to weekly checklist
    • Full paradigm for definite article (7.10) - add to weekly checklist
    • Six noun rules - add to weekly checklist
    • Full lexical forms
    • Parsing
      • Approach parsing as detective work:
      • Some words can only be one form, e.g. if you see an iota subscript, it is a data singular
      • But other words can be more than one form, e.g. ἁμαρτίας (gen. sg. or acc. pl.)
    • Use your Bible Software, e.g. Accordance, to check your parsing
    • Translation Tips
      • Use keywords when translating the genitive and dative
      • Words in the genitive are usually next to the noun they modify
      • Keep the article with noun it modifies, as well as genitive.
  • Read and study chapter 8 on Prepositions.

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας