Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

  • Return and review last week’s quiz on Alphabet, etc.
  • Check and review workbook exercises 4, and Review 1-4
  • Questions on chapter 4: Punctuation, Diacritical Marks, Accents, Syllabification
  • Review Chapter 4 Vocabulary
  • Quiz on Chapter 4

Overview of Chapters 5-9

We now get into the meat of Greek grammar

  • chapter 5. Nouns in general
  • chapter 6. Nominative and Accusative cases; the Definite Article
  • chapter 7. Genitive and Dative Cases
  • chapter 8. Prepositions and present tense of the verb to be, εἰμι
  • chapter 9. Adjectives

Generic Grammar


  • Changing the form of a word to indicate its Function, Gender or Number
    • Case Function in Sentence (Subject, Object, Possessive, etc.) e.g. ‘She’, ‘her’, ‘her’s’ respectively.
    • Number, Singlular, Plural e.g. ‘olive’ ‘olives’ respectively.
    • Gender, Masculine, Feminine, Neuter, e.g. ‘he’ ‘she’ ‘it’ respectively; prince / princess / heir
      • Natural gender and grammatical gender
  • English is lightly inflected, Greek is heavily inflected
    • Vestiges of English inflection: Who (subject) / Whom (object)
  • Substantives (Nouns, Pronouns and Adjectives) have Declension, and are declined.

Parts of Speech - 5.8-5.13

  • Noun - Someone or something. Person, Place or Thing. Animal, Vegetable, Mineral.
  • Adjective - Modifies a noun
  • Preposition - describes the relation between two words (spatial or temporal)
  • Subject and Predicate
  • Definite Article
  • Indefinite Article
  • Read Smyth on Inflection and Parts of Speech

Exegetical Insight on John 1.1 c

  • John 1.1
  • Colwell’s Construction - “Definite predicate nouns which precede the verb usually lack the article.”
  • Contra Sabellianism (modalism)
  • Contra Arianism
  • Contra Jehovah’s Witnesses - see this article (pun intended)

Greek Grammar - 6.3-6.6

  • Greek Subjects and Verbs - Subject is implicit in the verb, and does not have to be expressed
  • Form of the Greek noun: Stem (e.g *λογο) + Case Ending (Gender, Number)
    • Greek uses different endings for nouns to indicate Case, Gender and Number
    • Stem of a word is the basic form that carries its meaning
  • Declensions
    • 1st (alpha) stem ends in αλφα or ητα, usually feminine) - Smyth on 1st Declension
      • eta stems change to alpha in plural
    • 2nd (omicron) - stem ends in omicron, usually masculine or neuter - Smyth on 2nd declension
    • 3rd (consonant) - stem ends in consonant - Smyth on 3rd declension
    • Some nouns, e.g. some proper names, are indeclinable cf. chapter 1 of Matthew
  • First 2 Cases
    • Nominative Case - subject of verb
      • from Latin casus nominativus, ‘case relating to naming,’ translation of Greek ὀνομάστικη πτῶσις
      • “Who” or “What” did it?
    • Accusative Case - object of verb
      • from Latin casus accusativus, ‘case relating to an accusation or (legal) case,’ translating Greek πτῶσις αἰτιάτκη, ‘the case showing cause.’
      • “What” or “Whom” was done?
  • Word order is free. Function is determined by inflection, not word order. 6.11
  • Lexical Form is how you look it up in the Lexicon (Dictionary)
    • The Lexical Form of nouns is the nominative singular form
  • Paradigm (παραδείγμα = pattern) of the noun must be learned to perfection

  • Parsing nouns: Case, Gender, Number, Lexical Form, Inflected Meaning
    • List all possibilities, e.g. when the form could be either nominative or accusative neuter.

First 3 Nouns rules

  1. Stems ending in α,η are 1st declension, stems ending in o are 2nd, consonantal stems are 3rd
  2. Neuters are always the same in Nominative and Accusative
  3. Almost all neuter plurals end in -α in the Nominative and Accusative Plural

Definite Article

  • Must always agree with what it modifies in case, gender and number (this is very helpful)
    • Knowing the forms of the article is the key to recognizing the forms of nouns
  • Learn the paradigm (will be completed in chapter 7)
  • Exegetical Insight: John 1.1 - Importance of the article

Review Vocabulary

Video Lectures


  • Continue to read Greek from your Greek New Testament
  • Workbook exercise 6 on Nominative and Accusative cases, and the Definite Article
    • Chapter 6 and following is where the rubber meets the road: keep working at it, spend some extra time.
    • You will get the most out of the workbook exercises here on out if you treat them like tests
  • Prepare for quiz next week on everything through chapter 6, specifically:
    • All the vocabulary to date
    • Paradigms for Weekly Checklist: Case endings, Definite article
    • The 3 noun rules we have learned to date
    • Functions of the Nominative and Accusative cases
    • How to parse nouns (case, gender, number, lexical form, inflected meaning)
    • Note: No extra credit on next quiz
  • Read and study chapter 7 on the Genitive and Dative cases.

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας