Gamma Kappa

👋🏼 χαῖρετε μαθηταί

Review and Addenda

Conditional Clauses in Greek

  • There are four (or five) classes of conditions in Greek (BBG 35.5-8, GGBB 687-701, Smyth §2280-2368)
  • Conditions can be classified according to Form i.e. how the sentence is structured, or Function i.e. with reference to their meaning (Time, Fulfillment or not, Particular or General)

Conditions Classified by Form

Type Description Protasis (“if”) Apodosis (“then”)
First Class Condition of Fact
(assumed true)
εἰ + indicative any mood
any tense
Second Class Past Contrary to Fact εἰ + indicative indicative + ἄν
same tense as protasis
Third Class Future More Probable
Present General
ἐάν + subjunctive any mood
any tense
Fourth Class Future Less Probable εἰ + optative optative + ἄν

1st Class – Condition of Fact

  • Protasis: εἰ + indicative, any tense, negated by οὐ;
  • Apodosis: any mood, any tense
  • Assumed true for the sake of argument, not that it is actually true. A supposition of reality
    • This is important exegetically.
    • Example: 1 Corinthians 15.13 - εἰ δὲ ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν, οὐδὲ Χριστὸς ἐγήγερται·

2nd Class – Past Contrary to Fact

  • Protasis: εἰ + indicative, any tense, negated by μή;
  • Apodosis: indicative + ἄν, same tense as protasis
  • Assumed untrue for the sake of argument, presumed to be contrary to fact
  • Example: John 5.46 - εἰ γὰρ ἐπιστεύετε Μωϋσεῖ, ἐπιστεύετε ἂν ἐμοί·

3rd Class – Future More Probable

  • Protasis: ἐάν + subjunctive, any tense, negated by μή;
  • Apodosis: any mood, any tense
  • Future More Probable
    • Example: ταῦτά σοι πάντα δώσω, ἐὰν πεσὼν προσκυνήσῃς μοι. (Matthew 4.9)
  • Present General (a.k.a Fifth Class Condition)
    • Generic truth in present time
    • Example: John 11.9 - ἐάν τις περιπατῇ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, οὐ προσκόπτει

4th Class – Future Less Probable

  • Protasis: εἰ + optative, Present or Aorist
  • Apodosis: optative + ἄν, Present or Aorist
  • Example: 1 Peter 3.14 - ἀλλ᾿ εἰ καὶ πάσχοιτε διὰ δικαιοσύνην, μακάριοι.

Other μι-verbs (athematics)

  • μι-verbs come in 4 classes: See Smyth on Conjugation of μι-verbs
    • stems in ο, e.g. δίδωμι (stem δο) - See paradigm in 34.11
    • stems in α, e.g. ἵστημι (stem στα)
    • stems in ε, e.g. τίθημι (stem θε)
    • stems in υ, e.g. δείκνυμι (stem δεικνυ)
  • What is true of ο-stem athematics like δίδωμι, is also true of athematic with other stem vowels
    • All μι-verbs use the same endings (35.2)
    • Like reduplication with ο stems, e.g. δίδωμι so also with stems in α, ε
      • στα -σιστα » ἵστημι (sigma drops out and is replaced by rough breathing)
      • θε -θιθε » τίθημι (reduplicated θ changes to τ)
      • δείκνυμι does not reduplicate, it behaves more like a thematic verb
    • Stem vowels lengthen in the same way for athematics in ο (δίδωμι), α (ἵστημι) and ε (τίθημι)
      • both α and ε lengthen to η
  • See Present Active Indicative paradigm of all 4 stem classes in 36.2
  • Athematics were becoming obsolete in κοινή
    • explains the presence of thematic forms such as ἱστάνω (36.4)
    • also the 2nd person singular δεικνύεις
  • Study athematic paradigms in BBG Appendix under Verb System
  • See Smyth on μι verbs

The Definite Article (36.5-9 in 3rd edition)

  • When the article is present, it emphasizes identity
    • Simple Identification - catch-all category
    • Anaphoric (from ἀναφέρειν - to bring back) - refers back to previous reference
      • Initial reference is usually anarthrous, as it is being introduced
      • e.g. John 4.10-11 - ὕδωρ ζῶν.
    • Deictic (from δείκνυμι - to show) - points something out
      • e.g. John 19.5 - καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· ἰδοὺ ὁ ἄνθρωπος.
    • Par excellence - in a class by itself
      • e.g. Rev. 1.5 - καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ μάρτυς, ὁ πιστός
    • Monadic - unique, one of a kind
      • e.g. James 5.8 - ὅτι ἡ παρουσία τοῦ κυρίου ἤγγικεν.
    • κτλ. (Study 36.5-7 and GGBB pp. 216-227 for particular uses of the article)
  • When the article is absent, it usually emphasizes quality (36.8-9)
    • e.g. 1 John 4:8 - ὁ θεὸς ἀγάπη ἐστίν.
    • of course it can also indicate that a substantive is simply non-specific
    • and as a grammatical marker of attributive adjectives (chapter 9), e.g. μετὰ τῶν ἀγγέλων τῶν ἁγίων. (Mark 8:38)
    • See also GGBB pp. 243-253 for details on absence of the article
    • See brief essay on John 1.1

Pluperfect Tense

  • Describes action completed whose effects are felt after the time of completion, but in past time.
    • Like the Perfect in that it describes completed action
    • the speaker’s perspective with Perfect is the Present, e.g. “I have prepared for the test”, but the speaker’s perspective with the Pluperfect is past time, e.g. “I had prepared for the test”
  • Formed off of the Perfect Tense Stem, just as the Imperfect is formed off of the Present Tense Stem
  • 86 NT occurrences + some periphrastic constructions
  • Paradigm in 25.24
  • Examples:
    • οἱ γὰρ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἀπεληλύθεισαν εἰς τὴν πόλιν (John 4:8)
    • καὶ σκοτία ἤδη ἐγεγόνει καὶ οὔπω ἐληλύθει πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, (John 6:17)
  • Some verbs like οἶδα have a simple past meaning. This is because οἶδα has a present meaning “I know”, but a perfect form. Similarly its pluperfect ᾔδειν is used as a simple past “I knew”
    • e.g. καὶ οὐκ ἤφιεν λαλεῖν τὰ δαιμόνια, ὅτι ᾔδεισαν αὐτόν. (Mark 1:34)
  • See also GGBB pp. 583-586

Other Miscellany

  • Verbs are either transitive or intransitive (36.10)
    • Transitive verbs carry their action to a direct object, e.g. “He read the book”
    • Intransitive verbs do not, e.g. “He slept” (there is no direct object)
  • Greek sentence structure is normally verb, subject, object (36.11). When something other than the verb is first, it is usually for emphasis

Exegetical Insights

New Vocabulary

  • ἀφίημι - literally “I hurl from,” is often used “to forgive”, i.e. you throw the offence away from you, e.g. Matt 6.12 - καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
  • ἀνίστημι - literally “I stand up” from which the noun ἀναστάσις is derived (resurrection)
  • ἵστημι - is both transitive (Present, First Aorist) “I make to stand” and intransitive (2nd Aorist, Perfect) “I stand”
    • In the present the reduplicated σ drops off
    • It is unusual for an athematic in that it does not use a kappa Aorist
  • τίθημι from which the noun θέσις “a placing” i.e. a proposition is derived

Scripture Memory

  • nothing new this week

Video Lectures


  • Complete Workbook exercises for chapter 36, and Review #7
  • Prepare for the final exam
    • All vocabulary - 25%
    • Γραμματική - 40%
      • Paradigms (Case endings, noun, adjective, verb conjugations)
      • Identification, e.g. how do you tell a relative pronoun from a definite article, what is a genitive absolute
    • Translation - 35% - includes parsing
    • All of the memory passages
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able
  • Try reading the sermon text in advance each week before the Lord’s Day
  • Make plans to acquire the required texts for the 2nd half of the semester

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας