Gamma Kappa

👋🏼 χαῖρετε μαθηταί

Review and Addenda

Non-Indicative of δίδωμι

  • Non-indicative forms of δίδωμι
    • NOTE: While the Indicative mood use the 1st Aorist forms (kappa Aorist), all the non-indicative moods use 2nd Aorists
    • Subjunctive (35.1)
      • all forms have the contracted ῶ
      • Present and Aorist distinguished by the stem only, e.g. δίδω vs. δῶ
    • Imperative (35.2)
      • No thematic (connecting) vowel, so imperative endings are added directly to the stem
    • Infinitive (35.3)
      • Same as thematics, except in Present and 2nd Aorist Active where ending is ναι, instead of ειν
    • Participle (35.4)
      • Standard 3-1-3 and 2-1-2 adjectival patterns, endings are predictable
  • Study athematic paradigms in BBG Appendix under Verb System
  • See Smyth on μι verbs

The Optative Mood (35.10)

  • Whereas the Subjunctive is the mood of probability or possibility, the Optative is the mood of wish
    • One step more removed from reality (Indicative)
  • See Smyth on Suffixes in the Optative
  • Tense indicates aspect only (Present = Continuous, Aorist = Simple) - there is no time significance
  • Formation of the Optative
    • No time significance, therefore no augment
    • Connecting vowel is omicron in Present and 2nd Aorist
      • As with several other paradigms, the 2nd Aorist is formed like the Present - therefore you must distinguish by the stem
    • Tense formative in the Aorist is σα for Active/Middle and θε for Passive, ε for 2nd Aorist Passive
    • Mood formative is ι in thematic conjugation, and ιη in athematic
    • Uses Secondary personal endings (see BBG Appendix under Verb System, 3rd edition and later)

Master Verb Ending Chart - BBG Appendix under Verb System)

Voice Primary
  λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
  λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
  λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
  λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
  λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
  λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
Middle & Passive  
  λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
  λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
  λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
  λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
  λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
  λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)

Hence regular patterms occur:

  • Present has οι (connecting vowel + mood formative) + endings
  • 1st Aorist has σαι and θει (tense formative + mood formative) + endings
  • 2nd Aorist Active/Middle is the same the Present
  • 2nd Aorist Passive is ει (tense formative + mood formative)

Conditional Clauses in Greek

  • There are four (or five) classes of conditions in Greek (BBG 35.5-8, GGBB 687-701, Smyth §2280-2368)
  • Conditions can be classified according to Form i.e. how the sentence is structured, or Function i.e. with reference to their meaning (Time, Fulfillment or not, Particular or General)

Conditions Classified by Form

Type Description Protasis (“if”) Apodosis (“then”)
First Class Condition of Fact
(assumed true)
εἰ + indicative any mood
any tense
Second Class Past Contrary to Fact εἰ + indicative indicative + ἄν
same tense as protasis
Third Class Future More Probable
Present General
ἐάν + subjunctive any mood
any tense
Fourth Class Future Less Probable εἰ + optative optative + ἄν

1st Class – Condition of Fact

  • Protasis: εἰ + indicative, any tense, negated by οὐ;
  • Apodosis: any mood, any tense
  • Assumed true for the sake of argument, not that it is actually true. A supposition of reality
    • This is important exegetically.
    • Example: 1 Corinthians 15.13 - εἰ δὲ ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν, οὐδὲ Χριστὸς ἐγήγερται·

2nd Class – Past Contrary to Fact

  • Protasis: εἰ + indicative, any tense, negated by μή;
  • Apodosis: indicative + ἄν, same tense as protasis
  • Assumed untrue for the sake of argument, presumed to be contrary to fact
  • Example: John 5.46 - εἰ γὰρ ἐπιστεύετε Μωϋσεῖ, ἐπιστεύετε ἂν ἐμοί·

3rd Class – Future More Probable

  • Protasis: ἐάν + subjunctive, any tense, negated by μή;
  • Apodosis: any mood, any tense
  • Future More Probable
    • Example: ταῦτά σοι πάντα δώσω, ἐὰν πεσὼν προσκυνήσῃς μοι. (Matthew 4.9)
  • Present General (a.k.a Fifth Class Condition)
    • Generic truth in present time
    • Example: John 11.9 - ἐάν τις περιπατῇ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, οὐ προσκόπτει

4th Class – Future Less Probable

  • Protasis: εἰ + optative, Present or Aorist
  • Apodosis: optative + ἄν, Present or Aorist
  • Example: 1 Peter 3.14 - ἀλλ᾿ εἰ καὶ πάσχοιτε διὰ δικαιοσύνην, μακάριοι.

Exegetical Insights

ὅτι ἐξ αὐτοῦ καὶ δι᾿ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα·
αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν. (Romans 11.36)

The great theological import of 3 small prepositions

New Vocabulary

This is the new vocabulary which is in BBG 3rd edition, but not the 2nd. You are responsible for these, so add them to your flash card stack. For those using the 2nd edition, you can look these up in any lexicon to, including the short one at the back of your book, to review principal parts, verbal roots, κτλ.

  • ἁγιάζω - I consecrate, sanctify
  • ἁμαρτάνω - I sin
  • ἁμαρτωλός, -όν sinful; noun: sinner
  • ἀνάστασις, -εως, ἡ = resurrection
  • ἀπαγγέλλω - I report, tell
  • διακομέω - I serve
  • διακονία, -ας, ἡ service
  • διαιόω - I justify, vindicate, constitute righteous
  • θλῖψις, -εως, ἡ affliction, tribulation
  • ἱλαστήριον, -ου, τό propitiation, expiation, place of propitiation, “mercy seat”
  • σταυρόω - I crucify
  • σωτήρ, ῆρος, ὁ - savior, deliverer
  • σωτηρία, -ας, ἡ salvation, deliverance (cf. soteriology)
  • φανερόω - I reveal, make known
  • φόβος, -ου, ὁ fear, reverence

Scripture Memory for next class

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· (Matthew 6.9–11)

Video Lectures


  • Weekly Memorization: Matthew 6.9-11
  • Review past memory passages
  • Workbook exercises on chapter 35
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 35 - Non-Indicative forms of δίδωμι
    • know the roots of the athematic verbs
    • parse any athematic form
    • types of conditions
    • memory verses
  • Read Chapter 36 on other athematics
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able
  • Try reading the sermon text in advance each week before the Lord’s Day
  • Make plans to acquire the required texts for the 2nd half of the semester

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας