Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

μι-verbs (Athematic)

  • The “athematic” conjugation
    • The thematic conjugation is what we have learned to date. (34.2)
      • It is so called because of it uses the thematic vowel, what we have called the “connecting” vowel
    • The word “a-thematic” uses the Greek alpha-privative (like English “non-”) which negates. (34.3)
      • a-thematic, i.e. no thematic vowel
      • e.g. a-theist, a-gnostic, a-moral, a-typical, etc.
    • Hence what characterizes the athematic conjugation, a.k.a. the μι–verbs, is that is does not use connecting vowels. (See Rule 2 below)
  • μι-verbs come in 4 classes, based on their stem vowel:
    • stems in ο, e.g. δίδωμι (stem δο) - See paradigm in 34.11
    • stems in α, e.g. ἵστημι (stem στα)
    • stems in ε, e.g. τίθημι (stem θε)
    • stems in υ, e.g. δείκνυμι (stem δεικνυ)
  • The patterns for μι verbs are the same in all four classes
  • See Smyth on μι-verbs

The 5 Rules of μι verb (athematic) Recognition

  1. μι-verbs reduplicate in the Present, inserting an iota (34.6)
    • e.g. stem *δο => διδο
    • It is therefore essential that you learn the root of all μι-verbs, as reduplication occurs only with the Present Tense stem (Present and Imperfect)
    • Distinguished from the Perfect reduplication, because the Perfect reduplicates with an epsilon
  2. μι-verbs are athematic. They do not use “connecting” vowels in most forms. (34.7)
    • Exception are the Imperfect and the Future (See 34.11)
  3. μι-verbs have Present Active endings similar to standard Primary endings, but with some variations (34.8)
    • 1st singular, and 3rd singular and plural vary (μι, σι, ασι)
    • All other tense use same endings as the thematic conjugation, if you have learned the true endings, e.g. σαι in 2nd personal singular, primary middle/passive.
  4. μι-verb stems vowels can lengthen, shorten or drop out (ablaut),
    • See 34.11 to compare length of stem vowel in different forms
  5. μι-verbs usually use κα as tense formative in the Aorist (34.10)
    • Hence these are known as “kappa aorists”
    • Distinguished for Perfects because Perfects have reduplication

Examples of Indicatives of δίδωμι

  • καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· ταῦτά σοι πάντα δώσω, ἐὰν πεσὼν προσκυνήσῃς μοι (Matthew 4.9) Future Active, 3rd class condition, Future More Probable
  • ἄλλα δὲ ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν τὴν καλὴν καὶ ἐδίδου καρπόν, ὃ μὲν ἑκατόν, ὃ δὲ ἑξήκοντα, ὃ δὲ τριάκοντα. (Matthew 13.8) Imperfect
  • Αἰτεῖτε καὶ δοθήσεται (Matthew 7.7) Future Passive
  • ἐπείνασα γὰρ καὶ ἐδώκατέ μοι φαγεῖν (Matthew 25.35) Aorist Active (kappa Aorist)
  • ὁ πατὴρ ἀγαπᾷ τὸν υἱὸν καὶ πάντα δέδωκεν ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ. (John 3.35) Perfect Active
  • ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· ὅτι ὑμῖν δέδοται γνῶναι τὰ μυστήρια τῆς βασιλείας τῶν οὐρανῶν, ἐκείνοις δὲ οὐ δέδοται (Matthew 13.11) Perfect Passive, Complementary Infinitive
  • Work through applying the rules to the examples at the end of 34.11

New Vocabulary

  • δίδωμι - what English words might be derived from the root δο? (donate, donor, etc.)
  • ἔθηος - derived words: ethnic, ethnocentric, ethnography, etc.
  • λοιπός - Latin etc. (et cetera) “and other things” vs. Greek κτλ. (καὶ τὰ λοιπά) “and the rest”
  • πίπτω - note verbal root. Present reduplicates. In other forms ταυ drops out. Both 1st and 2nd Aorists.
  • ὑπάρχω - another verb of being, besides εἰμι (another μι verb, but irregular)

Scripture Memory for next class

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου,
ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς· (Matthew 6.9–10)

Video Lectures


  • Weekly Memorization: Matthew 6.9-10
  • Review past memory passages
  • Complete workbook exercise 34 on Indicative forms of δίδωμι
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 34 - Indicative forms of δίδωμι
    • 5 rules for recognizing athematic verbs
    • the term “athematic”
    • verbal roots of μι verbs
    • principal parts of δίδωμι
    • ability to parse any Indicative form of δίδωμι
    • all vocabulary
  • Read chapter 35 on the Non-Indicative forms of δίδωμι
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able
  • Make plans to acquire the required texts for the 2nd half of the semester

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας