Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

Summary of Greek Moods

Moods show the relation of the action of the verb to reality.

INDICATIVE — the mood of reality

  • from the Latin indicatus, past participle of indicare, from in- + dicare — to proclaim
  • asserts the denoted act or state as an objective fact
  • may be either a statement or a question about what is factual and real.
  • It does not follow that the statement is actually true, only that it is being asserted as true from the speaker's point of view
  • asserted as true, as distinguished from what is wished for, hoped for, commanded, considered a possiblity, etc.
  • Example: If someone says Jesus was only a good teacher, he is making a statement about reality from his point of view. It is therefore Indicative, though not actually true.
  • The Indicative is the only mood in which tense has temporal (time) significance. The tense of non-indicative moods (all the following) signify aspect only (see note on Aspect below)

IMPERATIVE — the mood of command

  • Latin imperativus, from imperatus, past participle of imperare to command
  • expresses the will to influence the behavior of another

SUBJUNCTIVE — the mood of possibility

  • from the Latin subjunctivus, from subjunctus, past participle of subjungere — to join beneath, subordinate
  • represents a denoted act or state not as fact but as contingent or possible
  • its uses are many and varied in Greek, e.g. purpose clauses, 3rd class conditions, et al.

OPTATIVE — the mood of wish

  • from the Latin optativus, from optare to wish
  • expresses wish or desire, e.g. 'μὴ γένοιτο'(may it never be!) in Romans 6.2
  • The Optative is rare in NT Greek


  • These 4 moods are called finite. The Infinitive, though sometimes classed as a mood, is actually a verbal noun
  • Aspect is the kind of action denoted, relative to its progress, results, or simple occurrence

Quick Test on Subjunctives

  • What is this?

μὴ ὁ νόμος ἡμῶν κρίνει τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐὰν μὴ ἀκούσῃ πρῶτον παρ᾿ αὐτοῦ καὶ γνῷ τί ποιεῖ; (John 7.51)


  • The mood of command
    • A direct command, as to a subordinate
    • When addressing a superior, such as God, Imperative of Entreaty, (33.17) e.g. Matt 6.10 - ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου
  • Tense: occurs in the Present (Continuous aspect), the Aorist (Simple aspect) and rarely in the Perfect (33.20) (Completed aspect)
    • as with all non-indicative moods, the tense of the Imperative has no time significance, only aspect
  • Person: occurs in both the 2nd person(direct command), and 3rd person.
    • 2nd person, e.g. βλέπε “Look!” or λέγει αὐτῷ Φίλιππος· ἔρχου καὶ ἴδε (John 1.46) “Come and see”
    • 3rd person, e.g. βλεπέτω “Let him look” or “He must look” or ἐάν τις διψᾷ ἐρχέσθω πρός με καὶ πινέτω. (John 7.37) “Let him come” and “let him drink”
  • Formation of the Imperative (33.5-8)
    • Present: Present Stem + Connecting Vowel + Imperative Morpheme
    • Aorist: (Unaugmented) Aorist Stem + Tense Formative (σα/θη) + Imperative Morpheme
    • 2nd Aorist: (Unaugmented) 2nd Aorist Stem + Imperative Morpheme (33.10)
      • Morpheme is same as Present in Active and Middle
      • Morpheme is same as 1st Aorist in Passive, but no Tense Formative (θη)
    • Morphemes should be memorized. Everything else is quite regular
    • Note: 2nd singular forms should be memorized
      • they seem to be irregular, but are not really.
      • See MBG #71-72, p. 143ff.
        • Intervocalic σιγμα drops out, and vowels contract regularly
        • In 2nd person singular middle/passive: λυ + ε + σο => λυεο => λύου
        • 2nd singular Aorist Active form is not easily explainable: λῦσον
      • All things considered, it is probably easier just to memorize the 2nd singular forms

Particple Morphemes - learn from the following chart (33.6-7)


  Active & and Aorist Passive Middle/Passive  
2 sg    ε   σο
3 sg    τω   σθω
2 pl    τε   σθε
3 pl    τωσαν   σθσαν

  • Deponent verbs have deponent imperatives
    • The Present Imperative, 2nd Personal singular of ἔρχομαι is ἔρχου, e.g. λέγει αὐτῷ Φίλιππος· ἔρχου καὶ ἴδε. (John 1.46)
  • Review the paradigm (33.8)
  • Contract verbs contract regularly (stem vowel + connecting vowel) for Present Imperatives (33.11, p.366)
  • εἰμί Present Imperatives are built off of εσ (33.12) - you must learn these forms.
  • Ambiguous forms - 2nd person plural, Active and Middle, are the same in the Imperative as in the Indicative (33.9)
    • Present: ετε, εσθε - context must determine
      • e.g. John 14.1 - Μὴ ταρασσέσθω ὑμῶν ἡ καρδία· πιστεύετε εἰς τὸν θεὸν καὶ εἰς ἐμὲ πιστεύετε (Imperative must determined by context - The 3rd person imperative ταρασσέσθω gives help)
      • e.g. Mark 11.22 - καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγει αὐτοῖς· ἔχετε πίστιν θεοῦ. (again Imperative is determined by context)
    • Aorist: σατε, σασθε - the Imperative will have no temporal augment
    • 2nd person singular Aorist Active Imperative looks like Aorist Infinitive
      • e.g. λῦσαι

Six ways to express prohibition (33.18)

  1. οὐ + Future Indicative = a general prohibtion, e.g. “You shall not steal”
    • e.g. Καὶ ὅταν προσεύχησθε, οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί, (Matthew 6.5)
    • cf. Matthew 19.18, Matthew 20.27, I Peter 1.16
    • See GGBB p.569ff.
  2. μή + Present Imperative = prohibits a continuous action, usually attitude or general precept/conduct, e.g. “Do not gossip”
    • e.g. μὴ φοβοῦ, μόνον πίστευε. (Mark 5.36)
    • cf. also Romans 6.12
  3. μή + Aorist Imperative = simple prohibition, usually for a specific case, to cease some action, e.g. “Stop talking during class”
    • e.g. μὴ οὖν ὁμοιωθῆτε αὐτοῖς· οἶδεν γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὧν χρείαν ἔχετε πρὸ τοῦ ὑμᾶς αἰτῆσαι αὐτόν. (Matthew 6.8)
  4. μή + Aorist Subjuctive = Prohibitive Subjunctive stronger prohibition (“No!”)
    • e.g. μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι εἶπόν σοι· δεῖ ὑμᾶς γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν. (John 3.7)
    • cf. also Matthew 1.20, Romans 10.6, Rev. 22.10
    • See GGBB p.469
  5. οὐ μή + Aorist Subjuctive = Emphatic Negation, even stronger prohibition (“Certainly Not! Never!”)
    • e.g. καὶ πᾶς ὁ ζῶν καὶ πιστεύων εἰς ἐμὲ οὐ μὴ ἀποθάνῃ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. πιστεύεις τοῦτο; (John 11.26)
    • See GGBB, p. 468ff.
  6. μή + Optative = strong negative wish,
    • e.g. Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; ἐπιμένωμεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, ἵνα ἡ χάρις πλεονάσῃ; 2 μὴ γένοιτο. (Romans 6.1–2) μή γένοιτο (“May it never be!”)

New Vocabulary

Scripture Memory for next class

  • Genesis 1.3 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός γενηθήτω φῶς καὶ ἐγένετο φῶς.
  • 3rd Person Sg, Aor Passive Imperative of γίνομαι

Video Lectures


  • Weekly Memorization: Genesis 1.3 - καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός γενηθήτω φῶς καὶ ἐγένετο φῶς.
  • Review past memory passages
  • Complete workbook exercise 33 on Imperatives
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 33 - Imperatives
    • know how to form the Imperative. (2nd singular forms should be memorized)
    • be able to give imperative forms of any verb we have had thus far
    • memorize the imperatives for εἰμί
  • Read chapter 34 on μι verbs - Indicative of δίδωμι (in 2 weeks)
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able
  • Make plans to acquire the required texts for the 2nd half of the semester

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας