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Review and Addenda

Only 6 more chapters until the end of BBG!

Summary of Greek Moods

Moods show the relation of the action of the verb to reality.

INDICATIVE — the mood of reality

  • from the Latin indicatus, past participle of indicare, from in- + dicare — to proclaim
  • asserts the denoted act or state as an objective fact
  • may be either a statement or a question about what is factual and real.
  • It does not follow that the statement is actually true, only that it is being asserted as true from the speaker's point of view
  • asserted as true, as distinguished from what is wished for, hoped for, commanded, considered a possiblity, etc.
  • Example: If someone says Jesus was only a good teacher, he is making a statement about reality from his point of view. It is therefore Indicative, though not actually true.
  • The Indicative is the only mood in which tense has temporal (time) significance. The tense of non-idicative moods (all the following) signify aspect only

IMPERATIVE — the mood of command

  • Latin imperativus, from imperatus, past participle of imperare to command
  • expresses the will to influence the behavior of another

SUBJUNCTIVE — the mood of possibility

  • from the Latin subjunctivus, from subjunctus, past participle of subjungere — to join beneath, subordinate
  • represents a denoted act or state not as fact but as contingent or possible
  • its uses are many and varied in Greek, e.g. purpose clauses, 3rd class conditions, et al.

OPTATIVE — the mood of wish

  • from the Latin optativus, from optare to wish
  • expresses wish or desire, e.g. 'μὴ γένοιτο'(may it never be!) in Romans 6.2
  • The Optative is rare in NT Greek


  • These 4 moods are called finite. The Infinitive, though sometimes classed as a mood, is actually a verbal noun
  • Aspect is the kind of action denoted, relative to its progress, results, or simple occurrence


  • Whereas the Indicative Mood is the mood of reality,
    The Subjunctive Mood is the mood of probability or possibility
    • what may or might be, rather than what is, which is expressed by the Indicative
    • This is often expressed with a conditional preface to a statement, e.g. “If I study well (the condition has the verb in the subjunctive), I will earn (the possible outcome) an A on the exam”
    • also exhortation (hortatory) or something that is generally true (axiomatic)
    • Since it denotes something probable or possible, the Subjunctive often refers to something in the potential future, BUT
  • Since the Subjunctive is a non-Indicative mood, it is negated by μή. (31.18)
  • Like all Greek non-Indicative moods, the Subjunctive has no time significance
  • The Subjunctive occurs in the Present and the Aorist (and rarely the Perfect), and their respective aspects are what you would expect:
    • Present, built on the Present Tense stem, has Continuous aspect
    • Aorist, built on the (unaugmented) Aorist Tense stem, has Simple aspect
    • Perfect, built on the (unreduplicated) Perfect Tense stem, has Completed aspect (31.21)
      • In the NT, the Perfect Subjunctive is found only in 10 forms of οἶδα
  • The telltale sign of the Subjunctive is the lengthened connecting vowel
    • ο -> ω
    • ε -> η
  • The Subjunctive uses the same primary endings as the Indicative, with the lengthened connecting vowel
  • The endings are the same in both the Present and the Aorist. What does this mean?
    • As with participles, that you must know the Tense Stems, in order to distinguish.
  • Formation of the Present Subjunctive (31.8-9)
    • Present Tense Stem + Lengthened Connecting Vowel ( ω/η ) + Primary personal endings
    • Note that ει lengthens to ῃ with the lengthening of the connecting vowel, e.g. in the 2nd and 3rd person singular forms
    • 2nd person sing
  • Formation of the Aorist Subjunctive (31.10-11)
    • Unaugmented Aorist Tense Stem + (Tense Formative σ if 1st Aorist) + Lengthened Connecting Vowel ( ω/η ) + Primary personal endings
    • A 1st Aorist subjunctive is distinguished from the Present by the presence of the Tense Formative σ, e.g.
    • A 2nd Aorist subjunctive is distinguished from the Present because it has a different tense stem, e.g. λαμβάνωμεν vs. λάβωμεν
    • No temporal augment, as with the Aorist participle, since there is no time significance
    • As with the Present, ει lengthens to ῃ with the lengthening of the connecting vowel
  • Review the Master Verb Endings Chart (BBG p.354)

Master Verb Ending Chart BBG p.352)

Voice Primary
  λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
  λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
  λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
  λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
  λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
  λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
Middle & Passive  
  λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
  λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
  λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
  λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
  λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
  λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)

  • Contract verbs function normally, but you should review the forms (31.12)
  • See the Master Non-indicative Verb Chart (BBG p.356) and the Subjunctive paradigms (BBG p.364)

Subjunctive (BBG p.356)

Verb Tense Augment/
1st Person
Present Active Present ω/η Primary Active λύω
Present Middle/Passive Present ω/η Primary Middle/Passive λύωμαι
1st Aorist Active Aorist Active σ(α) ω/η Primary Active λύσω
1st Aorist Middle Aorist Active σ(α) ω/η Primary Middle/Passive λύσωμαι
1st Aorist Passive Aorist Passive θ(η) ω/η Primary Active λυθῶ
2nd Aorist Active Aorist Active ω/η Primary Active λάβω
2nd Aorist Middle Aorist Active ω/η Primary Middle/Passive γένωμαι
2nd Aorist Passive Aorist Passive ω/η Primary Active γράφω

Uses of the Subjunctive - Dependent Clauses

ἵνα + the Subjunctive (31.14)

  • Purpose Clause (Telic)
    • ἵνα + the Subjunctive can express purpose
    • e.g Hebrews 4.16 - προσερχώμεθα οὖν μετὰ παρρησίας τῷ θρόνῳ τῆς χάριτος, ἵνα λάβωμεν ἔλεος καὶ χάριν εὕρωμεν εἰς εὔκαιρον βοήθειαν.
    • negated with μή for non-idicative mood: ἵνα μή or ὅπως μή = “in order that not” i.e. “lest”
  • Appositional Clause
    • Explanatory, "namely, that"
    • a weaker sense than purpose
    • e.g John 17.3 - αὕτη δέ ἐστιν ἡ αἰώνιος ζωὴ ἵνα γινώσκωσιν σὲ τὸν μόνον ἀληθινὸν θεὸν καὶ ὃν ἀπέστειλας Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν. - "This is etermal life that they may know..."
    • Very common use in John's writings
  • Epexegetical Clause
    • Clarifying detail for a preceding noun or adjective
    • e.g. Luke 7.6 - οὐ γὰρ ἱκανός εἰμι ἵνα ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην μου εἰσέλθῃς· "I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof..."
  • For full details on ἵνα + the Subjunctive, cf. Wallace pp. 471-477

Conditional Clauses

  • if something, then something else
  • The “if” part of a conditional sentence is the protasis - “arranged before”
  • The “then” part of a conditional sentence is the apodosis - “given from” i.e. what results from the condition expressed in the protasis
  • Summary of 4 classes of Conditional Sentences in BBG pp.328-329 (35.5-9)
  • See also Wallace GGBB pp. 679-712
  • 3rd Class Conditions (31.15) 2 types:
    • Future More Probable, (aka Future More Vivid)
      • Protasis (ἐάν + Subjunctive), Apodosis (Future Indicative, or Imperative)
      • States that if the condition is met, then something will definitely happen.
      • e.g. Matt. 9.21: ἔλεγεν γὰρ ἐν ἑαυτῇ· ἐὰν μόνον ἅψωμαι τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ σωθήσομαι.
      • e.g. John 14.14: ἐάν τι αἰτήσητέ με ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου ἐγὼ ποιήσω.
    • Present General
      • Protasis (ἐάν + Subjunctive), Apodosis (Present Indicative)
      • States a general, or axiomatic truth
      • e.g. 1 John 4.12: ἐὰν ἀγαπῶμεν ἀλλήλους, ὁ θεὸς ἐν ἡμῖν μένει
  • Here is a fuller description of Conditional Clauses in Greek.

Uses of the Subjunctive - Independent Clauses

Hortatory Subjunctive (31.16)

  • “Hortatory” is from the Latin hortor, “I exhort”
  • Subjunctive in the 1st person, usually plural, e.g. ἀναγινώσκωμεν τὰς γράφας “Let us read the Scriptures”
  • e.g. Hebrews 4.16 - προσερχώμεθα οὖν μετὰ παρρησίας τῷ θρόνῳ τῆς χάριτος, ἵνα λάβωμεν ἔλεος καὶ χάριν εὕρωμεν εἰς εὔκαιρον βοήθειαν.

Deliberative Subjunctive (31.17)

  • e.g Matthew 6.31
  • A question whose answer in uncertain or in doubt.
  • Hence the verb is in the Subjunctive, since the speaker is not expressing certainty (Indicative), but rather only possibility or doubt.
  • e.g. Luke 3.12: ἦλθον δὲ καὶ τελῶναι βαπτισθῆναι καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν· διδάσκαλε, τί ποιήσωμεν;

Recognizing Subjunctive Clauses

  • Look for ἄν in any of its combinations: ὅταν (ὅτε + ἄν), ἐὰν (εί + ἄν), ὅς ἄν, ἕως ἄν
  • Lengthened connecting vowel - ο -> ω, ε -> η
  • Unaugmented Aorist
  • The is normally negated by μή (31.19)
    • exception is the emphatic negation, οὐ μή - see the Exegetical Insight for example

3 ways to pose a question (31.19)

  • Simple verb - not indication of what answer is expected
    • e.g. John 9.17: τί σὺ λέγεις περὶ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἠνέῳξέν σου τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς;
  • verb preceded by οὐ - expects an affirmative answer
    • e.g. John 14.10: οὐ πιστεύεις ὅτι ἐγὼ ἐν τῷ πατρὶ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ἐν ἐμοί ἐστιν;
  • verb preceded by μή - expects a negative answer,
    • e.g. 1Cor. 12.29: μὴ πάντες ἀπόστολοι; μὴ πάντες προφῆται; μὴ πάντες διδάσκαλοι; μὴ πάντες δυνάμεις;

Exegetical Insights

John 10.27-28 - τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἐμὰ τῆς φωνῆς μου ἀκούουσιν, κἀγὼ γινώσκω αὐτὰ καὶ ἀκολουθοῦσίν μοι, κἀγὼ δίδωμι αὐτοῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον καὶ οὐ μὴ ἀπόλωνται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα καὶ οὐχ ἁρπάσει τις αὐτὰ ἐκ τῆς χειρός μου.

  • strengthened, emphatic double-negative, οὐ μὴ

  • also consider footnote 6 on p.295

New Vocabulary

  • λίθος - derivatives? lithography, monolith,

Scripture Memory

John 6.51a - ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ζῶν ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς· ἐάν τις φάγῃ ἐκ τούτου τοῦ ἄρτου ζήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.

  • (3rd class condition, Future More Probable)

Video Lectures


  • Complete workbook exercise 31
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 31 - Subjunctives
  • Read chapter 32 on Infinitives
  • Make plans to acquire the required texts for the 2nd half of the semester
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able
  • Memorization: - Review past memory passages , learn John 6.51a

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας