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Review and Addenda

Perfect Participles

  • This completes the Greek participle forms: Present, Aorist and Perfect
  • The Perfect participle, acts like a perfect
    • indicates completed action, the results of which continue into the present
    • as seen from the speaker’s perspective, not the reader’s
  • Formation
    • Perfect Active: Reduplication + Perfect Tense Stem + Tense Formative κ + Participle Morpheme οτ/υια + Case Endings (30.5-6)
      • 3-1-3 Adjectival pattern
      • Vocalic reduplication is maintained, since it does not indicate time, like the temporal augment in the Aorist and Imperfect tenses
      • 2nd Perfects (30.17) tense formative is ‘α’ instead of ‘κ’
        • Learn with principal parts to recognize 2nd Perfects which are rare
    • Perfect Middle/Passive: Reduplication + Perfect Tense Stem + Participle Morpheme μενο/η + Case Endings (30.7-8)
      • 2-1-2 Adjectival pattern
      • no Tense Formative and no Connecting vowel, as in the Perfect Indicative Middle/Passive
      • accent is consistently paroxytone (acute on the penult)
  • Translation
    • “having…” of “after having…” depending on context
  • Know the “first 6” and be able to recognize all the forms (30.6, 30.8)
  • Easily identified by? The reduplication


Morpheme Tense/Voice Case Endings
ντ all Active and Aorist Passive 3-1-3
οτ Perfect Active 3-1-3
μενο/η all Middle/Passive and all Middle 2-1-2
Tense and Voice Redup. Tense
Tense Form. or
Conn. Vowel
Morpheme Nom. Plural Six Memory Forms
Present Active Present ο ντ / ουσα λέγοντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
Present Middle/Passive Present ο μενο / η λεγόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
1st Aorist Active Aorist
σα ντ / σα λύσαντες σας, σασα, σαν
σαντος, σασης, σαντος
1st Aorist Middle Aorist
σα μενο / η λυσάμενοι σαμενος, σαμενη, σαμενον
σαμενου, σαμενης, σαμενου
1st Aorist Passive Aorist
θε ντ λυθέντες θεις, θεισα, θεν
θεντος, θεισης, θεντος
2nd Aorist Active Aorist
ο ντ βαλόντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
2nd Aorist Middle Aorist
ο μενο / η γενόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
2nd Aorist Passive Aorist
ε ντ γραφέντες εις, εισα, εν
εντος, εισης, εντος
Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κ οτ λελυκότες κως, κυια, κος
κοτος, κυιας, κοτος
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Midddle/Passive μενο / η λελυμένοι μενος, μενη, μενον
μενου, μενης, μενου

Genitive Absolutes (30.9-13)

  • By definition, an ‘absolute’ (Lat. absolutus = ‘loosed’ or ‘separated’) has no direct grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence, i.e. the genitive absolute participial phrase does not directly modify any word in the sentence
    • In English, we have a similar construction, the ‘nominative absolute’ e.g. “Lord willing, we will arrive at noon.”
  • It consists of a noun or pronoun, and participle in the genitive
    • the participle in a genitive absolute is always anarthrous
    • the participle may have additional modifiers, like any other participial phrase, e.g. a direct object, adverbs, prepositional phrases et al.
    • occasionally the subject of the participial action is implicit in the participle, i.e. there is no noun or pronoun
  • Genitive absolutes tend to occur at the beginning of sentences.
  • most commonly uses the present participle to indicate an action or condition concurrent with that of the main verb
  • αὐτοῦ (pronoun) often functions as subject in genitive absolute
  • Translation (30.11)
    • As with many participial phrases in Greek, the genitive absolute is often idiomatic — you must therefore think in Greek, and then render into English
    • Most genitive absolutes should be understood temporally (30.12)
    • The time element of the participle is relative to the main verb
    • e.g. Present: αὐτοῦ ἐρχομένου - “(he) while coming”
    • e.g. Aorist: αὐτοῦ ἐλθόντος - “(he) after coming”
    • e.g. Perfect: αὐτοῦ λελυκότος - “(he) having loosed”
    • sometimes it is best to translate with a finite verb, especially when the genitive absolute has a subject
  • Work through 30.13

Periphrastics (30.14-15)

  • from περί + φράσις = “round about” i.e. “a round about” way of saying something
  • formed with verb to be (e.g. ειμί) + participle
  • never occurs in the Aorist. Why not?
  • rare instance in Greek where a “helping verb” is used, which is common in English, e.g. “will eat” for future, “was hit” for passive, etc.
  • In ancient Greek it emphasized continuous aspect, in κοινή less so, but still can depending on context
  • In κοινή, commonly used for 3rd person Plural, Perfect Middle/Passive
  • commonly used in 3rd person plural, Perfect Middle/Passive
  • Examples
    • Present: Col 1.6 καθὼς καὶ ἐν παντὶ τῷ κόσμῳ ἐστὶν καρποφορούμενον “Just as in all the world it is bearing fruit
    • Imperfect: Matthew 7.29 ἦν γὰρ διδάσκων αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐξουσίαν ἔχων “For he was teaching them as one having authority”
    • Perfect: Ephesians. 2.8 - Τῇ γὰρ χάριτί ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι διὰ πίστεως· καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν, θεοῦ τὸ δῶρον· “For by grace you are saved through faith; and this is not of you, it is the gift of God”

Exegetical Insight

Ephesians 2.8 - Τῇ γὰρ χάριτί ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι διὰ πίστεως· καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν, θεοῦ τὸ δῶρον·

Other Translations of Adverbial Participles

Review Notes on Present Adverbial Participles

  • Temporal - “while…” “after…”
  • Causal - “because…” “since”
  • Instrumental (Means) - “by…” e.g 1 Cor. 4.12 καὶ κοπιῶμεν ἐργαζόμενοι ταῖς ἰδίαις χερσίν “we toil by working with our hands”
  • Concessive - “though…” e.g. Mark 8.18 ὀφθαλμοὺς ἔχοντες οὐ βλέπετε
    καὶ ὦτα ἔχοντες οὐκ ἀκούετε “having eyes (even though you have eyes ), you do not see, and having ears (even though you have ears), you do not hear”
  • Manner - tells “how” or “in what way” e.g. Matthew 19.22 ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ νεανίσκος τὸν λόγον ἀπῆλθεν λυπούμενος “and after hearing the word, the young man went away grieving..”
  • Purpose (Telic) - “in order to” e.g Luke 10.25 Καὶ ἰδοὺ νομικός τις ἀνέστη ἐκπειράζων αὐτὸν “And behold a certain lawyer stoop up in order to test him”
  • As regular verb, e.g. Matthew 4.4 ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν· γέγραπται· οὐκ ἐπ᾿ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος - literally, “and after answering, he said…” can be translated “and he answered, and said…”

New Vocabulary

  • πρεσβύτερος

Video Lectures


  • Weekly Memorization: Ephesians 2.8 - Τῇ γὰρ χάριτί ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι διὰ πίστεως· καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν, θεοῦ τὸ δῶρον·
  • Complete workbook exercise 30
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 30 - Perfect Participles and Genitive Absolutes
  • Prepare for mid-term exam in 2 weeks
    • Know the Master Participle Chart including the six first forms (now complete)
    • Review Summary of Greek participle on p.282-283
    • All vocabulary
    • Translation from Workbook exercises
    • Any of the memory passages, including Ephesians 2.8
    • Study chapters 26-30 on Participles
    • Begin workbook review #6 - use to study for Exam in 2 weeks.
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας