Gamma Kappa

👋🏼 χαῖρετε μαθηταί

Introduction and Review

Think and Ask Questions. Seek to understand why

  • Remember that learning a language does consist in merely rote memorization. - You must engage all the rational and creative faculties God has given you.
    • Consider the nature of Language – it is a very large part of our being made in the image of our Creator
      • Expression of thought, both concrete and abstract
      • Communication of intelligence and perception from one to another
    • Think of the Why just as much as the What
  • Attendance is essential - getting behind in this class is usually fatal
  • Study partner(s) - find one or more. Suggested groups.
  • Patient persistence – 5-6 days per week. Schedule at least 1 hour per day, and stick to it. Use your weekly the weekly checklist each day.
  • Read all footnotes in the text - they are usually important.
  • Get a Greek New Testament (UBS or Nestle/Aland preferred, others, e.g. Majority Text are OK), and start reading it out load.

Grades - 3 components

Homework & Class Participation (20%)

  • completing weekly workbook assignments
  • knowledge of material as represented by responding to questions in class
  • reading out loud, translation, etc.

Weekly Quizzes (40%)

  • Mainly material from Mounce
  • Also material covered in class which is not in the text
  • You must have completed the week’s homework in order to take the week’s quiz

Exams (40%)

  • 2 per semester (mid-term and final)
  • mainly on the material covered in lectures and quizzes (reviewing quizzes is a good study strategy)
  • cumulative - new knowledge is built upon what preceded it

Review of Last Year

  • Noun rules

The Eight Noun Rules (BBG Appendix ~p.344)

  1. Stems ending in α,η are 1st declension, stems ending in o are 2nd, consonantal stems are 3rd
  2. Neuters are always the same in Nominative and Accusative
  3. Almost all neuter plurals end in -α in the Nominative and Accusative Plural
  4. Iota always subscripts in Dative singular, if possible (not possible in 3rd declension, since iota only subscripts under vowels)
  5. Vowels often change their length (Ablaut)
  6. Masculine and Neuter always the same in Genitive and Dative
  7. The Square of Stops (See below)
  8. Tau cannot stand at the end of a word, and will drop off (ντ + ς = ς)

    The Square of Stops (BBG 10.17-20)

    Type Voiceless Voiced Aspirate Spirant Double (With Sigma)
    Labials π β φ + σ => ψ
    Velars(Palatals) κ γ χ + σ => ξ
    Dentals τ δ θ + σ => σσ => σ

  • Master Case Endings

Master Case Ending Chart (BBG Appendix, ~ p.345)

First and Second Declension Third Declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masc / Fem Neuter
Nom Sg ς - ν ς / - -
Gen Sg υ ς υ ος ος
Dat Sg ι ι ι ι ι
Acc Sg ν ν ν α / ν -
Nom Pl ι ι α ες α
Gen Pl ων ων ων ων ων
Dat Pl ις ις ις σι(ν) σι(ν)
Acc Pl υς ς α ας α

Right-click here to download (Save Link As...) a blank chart for practice.

  • Verb Paradigms


Verb Tense Augment/
1st Person
Present Active Present ο/ε Primary Active λύω
Present Middle/Passive Present ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λύομαι
Imperfect Active ε Present ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλυον
Imperfect Middle/Passive ε Present ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυόμην
Future Active Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Active λύσω
Liquid Future Active Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Active μενῶ
Future Middle Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive πορεύομαι
Liquid Future Middle Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive μενοῦμαι
1st Future Passive Aorist Passive θησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λυθήσομαι
2nd Future Passive Aorist Passive ησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive ἀποσταλήσομαι
1st Aorist Active ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Active ἔλυσα
1st Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυσάμην
1st Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive θη Secondary Active ἐλύθην
Liquid Aorist Active ε Aorist Active α Secondary Active ἔμεινα
2nd Aorist Active ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλαβον
2nd Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐγενόμην
2nd Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive η Secondary Active ἐγράφην
1st Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κα Primary Active λέκυκα
2nd Perfect Active λε Perfect Active α Primary Active γέγονα
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Passive Primary Middle/Passive λέκυμαι

  • Verb ending quadrant

Master Verb Ending Chart - BBG Appendix under Verb System)

Voice Primary
  λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
  λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
  λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
  λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
  λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
  λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
Middle & Passive  
  λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
  λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
  λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
  λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
  λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
  λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)

Introduction to Participles

  • Participles are verbal adjectives, having characteristics of both verbs and adjectives (26.1-2)
    • in English, we form participles by adding -ing to a verb, e.g. in English reading, praying, working, playing sleeping
      • Note examples of verbal and adjectival characteristics in 26.1-2, 10
    • As Verbs
      • participles have Tense (Present, Aorist, Perfect) (26.11)
      • and Voice (Active, Middle, Passive, Deponent) (26.12)
      • if a verb is deponent, its participle will be also
      • Participles are usually negated by μή rather than ὀυ since ὀυ negates the indicative, and participles are not indicative (26.16)
      • No personal endings, since participles are not limited by a subject (26.17)
    • As Adjectives
      • like all adjectives, participles agree with what they modify in what? Case, Gender and Number (26.13)
      • The subject of a participle can be discovered by what seeing what it agrees with in the sentence (26.14)
    • Hence Participles have both _tense_ and _case_
    • Parse: Case, Gender, Number, Tense, Voice, “Participle”, Lexical Form, Inflected Meaning (26.18)
      • e.g. λύοντες: Present Active Participle, Nominative Masculine Plural of λύω, “loosing”
      • Participle is not technically a “Mood”
  • The modifiers of a participle (direct object, adverbs, prepositional phrases) make up the participial phrase. (26.3, 26.15)
    • e.g. “reading the book” “praying earnestly” “working hard for a living” etc.
    • in translation, it is important to clearly demarcate the beginning and the end of participial phrase, since it will function in the sentence as a whole unit
    • as with other syntactical elements, so with participles, English relies on word order, Greek on inflection, elements (26.4, 26.13)
  • Greek is very fond of participles - they are used far more in Greek than in English, and often strung together where we would use compound sentences. You cannot master Greek without mastering the particple (26.5)
    • We will be studying participles for the next 5 chapters (26-30)
    • most of the grammar is in this chapter
    • forms and uses in following chapters (26.19)
    • participles follow normal 1st, 2nd and 3rd declension endings for adjectives
  • Formation (26.7-8)
    • participles can be built on any verb
    • tense stem + (connecting vowel) + participle morpheme + case endings
    • the participle morpheme (smallest unit of meaning in word formation)
      • ντ for Present and Aorist participles
      • οτ for Perfect participles
  • ASPECT i.e. type of action (26.9)
    • This is the essence of the Greek participle, the key to understanding its meaning.
    • Remember the Greek verb tense includes both the ideas of time and aspect
    • With the participle, tense indicates aspect only, not the time the action occurs
      • Present: Continuous
      • Aorist: Undefined (or Simple)
        • Aorist has no temporal augment, since Tense indicates only aspect, not time
      • Perfect: Completed
  • As verbal adjectives, participles can be used either adverbially or adjectivally (26.2, 26.10)
    • Adverbial - the action of the participle is directed toward the verb
      • usually translated with an adverbial phrase, e.g. “While sitting on the window sill, Eutychus fell asleep”
    • Adjectival - modifies a noun or pronoun
      • usually translated with an adjectival phrase, e.g. “The parchment stored in the library belonged to Paul”
    • Give some other examples in English of participles used adverbially and adjectivally “While studying…” “Sitting in the chair”
    • Whether a participle is adverbial or adjectival is determined by? … Context.
    • English gerunds - participles functioning as nouns, e.g. “Knowing God is our highest aim.”
    • Greek does not have a gerund distinct from the participle, instead Greek uses the articular infinitive, e.g “To know God is our highest aim” (sidebar, p. 239)

The Apostles Creed in the original Greek

Πιστεύω εἰς Θεὸν Πατέρα,

παντοκράτορα, ποιητὴν οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς.

Καὶ εἰς Ἰησοῦν Χρίστον, υἱὸν αὐτοῦ τὸν μονογενῆ, τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν,

τὸν συλληφθέντα ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου,
γεννηθέντα ἐκ Μαρίας τῆς παρθένου,
παθόντα ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πιλάτου,
σταυρωθέντα, θανόντα, και ταφέντα,
τῇ τρίτη ἡμέρᾳ ἀναστάντα ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν,
ἀνελθόντα εἰς τοὺς οὐρανούς,
καθεζόμενον ἐν δεξιᾷ θεοῦ πατρὸς παντοδυνάμου,
ἐκεῖθεν ἐρχόμενον κρῖναι ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς.

Πιστεύω εἰς τὸ Πνεύμα τὸ Ἅγιον,

ἁγίαν καθολικὴν ἐκκλησίαν,
ἁγίων κοινωνίαν,
ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν,
σαρκὸς ἀνάστασιν,
ζωήν αἰώνιον.

  • Observe the symmetry and the structure
  • See how much beauty is lost in translation
  • How many participles?

Video Lectures


  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 26 on Participles
    • definition of a participle (verbal adjective)
    • what is a participial phrase
    • the 2 basic ways a participle can function (adverbial and adjectival)
    • how participles agree with what they modify (case, gender and number)
    • how to parse a Greek participle: Case, Gender, Number, Tense, Voice, “Participle”, Lexical Form, Inflected Meaning
    • how to negate a participle (μή)
    • the possible tenses of the participle and what they indicate
    • memorize the participle morphemes (ντ present and aorist, οτ perfect)
    • All vocabulary through chapter 25
    • All 6 memory verses to write from memory and translate (see below)
  • Study chapter 27 on Present Adverbial Participles
  • Begin workbook exercise 27 on the same
  • Review all 6 principal parts for all verbs to date
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Lexical Aids: Appendix II pp 79-85 on compound verbs. Part I pp.1-10 - make sure you know all words with NT occurrences > 150. Pay special attentive to the derivatives
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able
  • Review and know all previous memory passages:
    • John 1.1 - Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος.
    • Colossians 1.16b - τὰ πάντα δι᾿ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν ἔκτισται
    • Matthew 5.3 - Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.
    • John 14.6 - λέγει αὐτῷ [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς· ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· οὐδεὶς ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸν πατέρα εἰ μὴ δι᾿ ἐμοῦ.
    • Romans 8.1-2 (diagram) - Οὐδὲν ἄρα νῦν κατάκριμα τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. ὁ γὰρ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠλευθέρωσέν σε ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου.
    • 2 Corinthians 3.17 – ὁ δὲ κύριος τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν· οὗ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα κυρίου, ἐλευθερία.

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας