Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

Aorist and Future Passives

  • In English we form past and future passives by using helping verbs, e.g. ‘you were taken’ and ‘you will be taken’ respectively
    • See Appendix: Verb System - English Verb Tenses
    • This is how we will translate the Aorist and Future passives
  • Both are built on the 6th Principal Part (aka Tense Form)
    • e.g. λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, -, -, ἐλύθην
    • We will learn the 4th and 5th Principal Parts (Perfect Active, Perfect Middle/Passive) next chapter
  • Formation of Aorist Passive: (Temporal) Augment + Aorist Passive tense stem + Tense formative (θη or η) + Secondary active personal endings
    • Augment ε
      • Indicates Past Time
      • Hence it is designated the “temporal” augment
      • Always goes with Secondary Endings
    • Aorist Passive Tense Stem
      • Usually the same as the Present Tense Stem and Verbal Root, in 1st Aorist,
      • It often varies in the 2nd Aorist (the paradigmatic γράφω, γράψω, ἐγράφην does not)
      • 2nd Aorist Passives are rare in the New Testament
    • Tense Formative θη (1st Aorist) or η (2nd Aorist)
      • The presence of θη is a fairly reliable indicator of the Aorist Passive
      • Important to recognize the Tense Formative, due to variation in the Tense Stem
      • Stops will aspirate before the Tense Formative θη (24.10)
      • No connecting vowels. (Why?) - Tense Formative ends with a vowel
    • Secondary Active Endings (not Passive)
      • Alternative ending -σαν in 3rd Plural
  • Paradigms for Aorist Passive
    • 1st Aorist Passive - 24.4-5
    • 2nd Aorist Passive - 24.11-12
  • Formation of Future Passive: Aorist Passive Tense Stem + Tense Formative (θησ or ησ) + Connecting Vowel + Primary Middle/Passive personal endings
    • Aorist Passive Tense Stem (no augment - why? Not Past Time)
    • Tense Formative θης (1st Future) or ης (Second Future)
      • Sigma is adding for the Future, just as in the Active
    • Connecting Vowel (ο/ε)
    • Primary Passive Endings
      • -θησαν is Aorist Passive 3rd Plural, not Future Passive - only exception to the θης pattern.
  • Translate Future Passive - λυθήσομαι -> “I will be loosed”
    • Simple (undefined) aspect
  • Paradigms for Future Passive
    • 1st Future Passive - 24.14-15
    • 2nd Future Passive - 24.18-19
  • Deponent Futures may be Middle in form or Passive in Form (24.17)
    • Compare γενήσομαι (Middle Form) and φοβηθήσομαι (Passive Form) - both deponents (Active meaning), “I will become” and “I will be afraid” respectively
  • Read Exegetical Insight on p. 212

Review New Vocabulary

  • Note that you are now learning 4 principal parts
  • After next week you will be learning all 6
  • Learn the 6th Principal Part for all verbs (Previous words, end of chapter)

Review principal parts (Appendix Tense Stems of Verbs…)

Look at chapter 25 workbook exercises

Video Lectures


  • Final Exam is 4 weeks away. It will cumulatively cover the entire year’s work:
    • Review Noun Rules, 1st, 2nd, 3rd declensions, etc. as well as everything from this semester
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 24 on Aorist and Future Passive, and complete workbook exercise 24 on the same
    • Know the 6th Principal Part, Aorist Passive, for all verbs
    • Identify of the components of the Aorist Passive and the Future Passive
    • Parsing of verbs, especially Aorist Passives and Future Passives
    • Given a verb form, be able to identify its Tense, Voice, and Lexical Form
    • Translation
    • All memory verses, including 2 Corinthians 3.17
  • Study chapter 25 on the Perfect Indicative
  • Lexical Aids: Appendix II pp 79-85 on compound verbs. Part I pp.1-10 - make sure you know all words with NT occurrences > 150. Pay special attentive to the derivatives
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along
  • Memory Passasge: 2 Corinthians 3.17 – ὁ δὲ κύριος τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν· οὗ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα κυρίου, ἐλευθερία.

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας