Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

Overview of the the Rest of the semester (pp.180-181)

  • Learn all remaining tenses in the Indicative Mood (Imperfect, Aorist, Perfect)
  • Reminder: the essence of the Greek verb is usually Aspect, not Time
    • Imperfect - Continuous aspect in Past time (augment, secondary endings)
    • Aorist - Undefined aspect in Past time (augment, secondary endings)
      • 2 forms: 1st Aorist and 2nd Aorist
    • Perfect - Completed aspect, whose effects are felt in Present time (of the speaker), e.g. “I have studied” i.e. I am presently in the state of having studied
  • The six Principal Parts: Present Active, Future Active, Aorist Active, Perfect Active, Perfect Middle/Passive, Aorist Passive

Imperfect Indicative

  • Imperfect Tense: Aspect = Continuous, Time = Past
    • As you would expect, there are 3 different Greek tenses which express action in past time, one for each aspect: Imperfect (Continuous), Aorist (Simple), and Pluperfect (Completed) [rarely used]
    • Aspect is usually the most important element of the Greek verb. The Future Tense is the exception to this rule.
  • The Imperfect tense occurs only in the Indicative Mood
  • Formed with: Augment (ε) + Present Tense Stem + Connecting Vowel + Secondary endings
    • Augement ε (21.3)
      • The Augment prefix in Greek is similar to the -ed suffix in English, in that it indicates Past Time.
      • When tense stem begins with a vowel, the initial vowel lengthens, e.g. ἠγάπων. (21.10 b)
      • When tense stem begins with diphthong, the initial vowel lengthens, or it remains unchanged. (21.10 c)
      • In compound verbs the Augment comes after the preposition, e.g ἐκέβαλλον
        • if the preposition ends with a vowel, that final vowel will usually drop out. (21.20)
        • Preposition ἐκ changes to ἐξ before the Augment ε
    • Present Tense Stem (1st Principal Part)
      • Verbs that are deponent in the Present are also in the Imperfect, since they use the same stem
    • Connecting Vowel ο/ε (same as Present and Future) - follow the same rules - almost always visible in Imperfect
    • Secondary Personal Endings (Active or Middle/Passive)
  • Note similarities between Primary and Secondary personal endings. See 12.15
  • 2nd Sing. Middle/Passive contracts similar to Present e.g. ἐλυ ε σο -> ἐλύου
  • Learn the Imperfect Paradigms in 21.7, 21.9 and 21.22 (Contract)
  • Memorize the Imperfect of εἰμί in 21.23
  • The Imperfect forms, if they occur, are listed in parentheses in the vocabulary.
  • Read Exegetical Insight – different uses of the Imperfect. See Wallace for detail.
  • See Smyth on the Present and Imperfect Systems of the Verb


Verb Tense Augment/
1st Person
Present Active Present ο/ε Primary Active λύω
Present Middle/Passive Present ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λύομαι
Imperfect Active ε Present ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλυον
Imperfect Middle/Passive ε Present ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυόμην
Future Active Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Active λύσω
Liquid Future Active Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Active μενῶ
Future Middle Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive πορεύομαι
Liquid Future Middle Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive μενοῦμαι
1st Future Passive Aorist Passive θησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λυθήσομαι
2nd Future Passive Aorist Passive ησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive ἀποσταλήσομαι
1st Aorist Active ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Active ἔλυσα
1st Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυσάμην
1st Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive θη Secondary Active ἐλύθην
Liquid Aorist Active ε Aorist Active α Secondary Active ἔμεινα
2nd Aorist Active ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλαβον
2nd Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐγενόμην
2nd Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive η Secondary Active ἐγράφην
1st Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κα Primary Active λέκυκα
2nd Perfect Active λε Perfect Active α Primary Active γέγονα
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Passive Primary Middle/Passive λέκυμαι

Verb endings

  • You have now learned all the personal endings for the verbs, so you can choose:
    • Either learn around 200 verb paradigms by rote, or
    • Learn these 4 sets of endings, and the 6 principal parts
    • Verb forms using Primary Endings do not use an augment
    • Verb forms using Secondary Endings do use an augment
    • Therefore you can determine whether or not a verb has an augment, by looking at which ending it is using. This is very helpful in parsing.

Master Verb Ending Chart - BBG Appendix under Verb System)

Voice Primary
  λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
  λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
  λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
  λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
  λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
  λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
Middle & Passive  
  λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
  λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
  λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
  λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
  λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
  λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)

Review New Vocabulary

  • Note the compound verbs, and identity their Imperfect forms
  • Reminder: Read the footnotes, e.g 17 concerning the monothelite heresy.

Video Lectures


  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Quiz next week on chapter 21
  • Study chapter 21, and complete workbook exercise 21
  • Read chapter 22 on 2nd Aorist Indicative Active/Middle
  • Lexical Aids: Appendix II pp 79-85 on compound verbs. Part I pp.1-10 - make sure you know all words with NT occurrences > 150. Pay special attentive to the derivatives
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along
  • Memory Passage: Romans 8.1-2 (diagram) - Οὐδὲν ἄρα νῦν κατάκριμα τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. ὁ γὰρ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠλευθέρωσέν σε ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου.

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας