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Review and Addenda

Verbal Roots and Tense Stems (20.2-5)

  • The Verbal Root is most basic form of a verb, it is not the same as the Verbal Tense Stem
  • The Verbal Root is given in the vocabulary when you learn a new verb, e.g. *αγαπα
    • Memorize the verbal root of a verb, as well as the lexical form
  • The Tense Stem is basic form of the verb in a particular tense
  • The different Tense Stems (Present, Future, Aorist…) are all derived from the Verbal Root
    • it is critical that you grasp this, or you will become quite confused and make things much more difficult
  • The Present Tense Stem may be the same as the Verbal Root, e.g. λυ -> λυ but often it is altered, e.g. βαλ -> βαλλ - Again, all the Tense Stems are derived from the Verbal Root, not from the Present Tense Stem
    • In fact, the Present Tense Stem is the most irregular of all the Tense Stems
    • Note the example of βάλλω (20.5)

Four patterns for the Future

Memorize the patterns for the 1st Principal Part (Present Tense Stem)

  1. Root not modified (20.6), i.e. the Present Tense Stem is the same as the Verbal Root
    • Verbal Roots ending in iota or upsilon, e.g. ἀκου -» ἀκούω
    • Contract Verbs
    • Roots ending in a stop
    • Present Tense Stem is normally the same as Future Tense Stem
  2. Different Roots (20.7)
    • Linguistic consolidation of verbs
    • e.g. ὁράω, ὄψομαι - the future or the former stopped being used, as did the present of the latter, so they combined
    • See other examples in 20.7
    • happens often when one Tense is deponent and another isn’t
    • You must memorize both roots
  3. Liquid Futures (20.8-18)
    • Liquid verbs are those whose verbal stem ends in a liquid (λ,μ,ν,ρ)
    • Tense stem is usually different than the present, e.g. Present βαλλ and Future βαλ
    • Tense Formative for Liquid Futures is εσ instead of plain σ
      • Sigma does not like to stand between 2 vowels, so it drops out
      • The remaining epsilon of the Tense Formative contracts with the Connecting Vowel
    • Always has circumflex accent over the contracted vowel, except in 1st Plural Middle, e.g. μενούμεθα
    • Learn the Liquid Future paradigms in 20.11-14
      • Note that Liquid Futures look the same as Present of epsilon Contract Verbs - so you must distinguish them by knowing the lexical form (20.15)
    • Present Liquids have no contraction
    • “Consonants carry the meaning of words, not vowels+ (20.23) cf. Lexical Aids pp. 76-77 (Grimm’s Law)
  4. Verbal Root Modified Regularly (20.20-24)
    • Root endings in a stop (20.21)
      • stems ending in dentals ιζω / αζω verbs, e.g. βαπτιδ -> βαπτίζω in which final δ changes to ζ for euphony
      • dental drops out before Tense Formative σ according to the Square of Stops
      • stems ending in velars, ασσω verbs, e.g. ταραχ -> ταράσσω
        • velar + sigma forms ξ according to the Square of Stops
    • originally consonantal iota was added to root to from the Present Tense Stem (20.27)
    • Double consonants, e.g βαλ -> βαλλω (20.22)
    • Letter(s) added to form the Present Tense, which are not added in other tenses (20.23)
      • Iota eg. αρ -> αἴρω
      • metathesis = switching the order of the letters
      • (ι)σκ e.g. αποθαν -> ἀποθνᾐσκω
    • Ablaut (20.24)
  • See Appendix (Tense Stems of Verbs Occurring 50x..) for most common verbs - forms to be memorized are in blue, or +underlined+


Verb Tense Augment/
1st Person
Present Active Present ο/ε Primary Active λύω
Present Middle/Passive Present ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λύομαι
Imperfect Active ε Present ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλυον
Imperfect Middle/Passive ε Present ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυόμην
Future Active Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Active λύσω
Liquid Future Active Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Active μενῶ
Future Middle Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive πορεύομαι
Liquid Future Middle Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive μενοῦμαι
1st Future Passive Aorist Passive θησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λυθήσομαι
2nd Future Passive Aorist Passive ησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive ἀποσταλήσομαι
1st Aorist Active ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Active ἔλυσα
1st Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυσάμην
1st Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive θη Secondary Active ἐλύθην
Liquid Aorist Active ε Aorist Active α Secondary Active ἔμεινα
2nd Aorist Active ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλαβον
2nd Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐγενόμην
2nd Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive η Secondary Active ἐγράφην
1st Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κα Primary Active λέκυκα
2nd Perfect Active λε Perfect Active α Primary Active γέγονα
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Passive Primary Middle/Passive λέκυμαι

Additional Information

  • Compound Verbs (20.26)
    • Formed by preposition joined to a verb, e.g. ἐκβάλλω
    • Preposition in some way intensifies the meaning of the verb
  • Consonantal Iota (20.27)
    • Accounts for many of the changes in verbal tense stems
    • added to roots ending in a stop form the Present Tense stem - stop + ι => ιζω or ασσω
    • added to some roots ending in consonant, e.g. βαλ, consonant + ι => double consonant
    • added to some roots to form their Present Tense Stem, e.g. αἴρω. Metathesis occurs.

Review New Vocabulary

  • Reminder: Read the footnotes!

Video Lectures


  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Quiz next week on chapter 20
    • All vocabulary
    • Difference between Verbal Root and Tense Stem
    • Components of Liquid Futures
    • Why some verbs have different verbal roots in different tenses
    • Learn verbal roots for all verbs we have learned thus far
    • 4 patterns of the Future, and how they work
      • particularly the regular patterns of modification for Pattern 4
    • Be able to parse everything
    • Translation usually from workbook exercises, possible extra credit for knowing book, chapter and verse
    • No new memory verse, know all 4 memory verses to date .
  • Study chapters 20, and complete workbook exercise 20
  • Workbook Review #4 will be due week after next
  • Mid-term Exam in 2 weeks - will cover chapters 1-20, esp. chapters 15-20
  • Lexical Aids: No new assignments. Part I pp.1-10 - make sure you know all words with NT occurrences > 150. Pay special attentive to the derivatives
  • Continue taking your Greek New Testament to church with you, and follow along

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας