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Review and Addenda

Future Active and Middle

  • Koine Greek has 7 Tenses: Present, Imperfect, Future, Aorist, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect
    • The last 2, Pluperfect (Past Perfect) and Future Perfect, are rare
    • You have learned the Present, now we are learning the Future.
    • The seven tenses are not the same as the 6 Principal Parts (19.4,5), which are Present Active, Future Active, Aorist Active, Perfect Active, Perfect Middle/Passive, Aorist Passive
    • The basic form of the verb in each of the 6 Principal Parts in called the Tense Stem
      • All forms of the verb for a given tense, are built using a specific Tense Stem
      • Mounce includes the Imperfect Tense in this list, though it is not one of the Principal Part because it is built off the Present Tense Stem.
  • The Future Tense indicates action that occurs in the future (from speaker’s or writer’s point of view)
    • Of all the Greek tenses, the Future has the strongest sense of Time
    • remember that all Greek verbs tenses denote both Time and Aspect, and the latter is usually the more important of the two – but not so with the Future Tense
    • Aspect is therefore most often Simple (Undefined) e.g. “I shall study” rather than “I shall be studying”
    • Normally translate using the words “will” or “shall” (19.14)
    • Exegetical Insight, chapter 19 - borrowing from Hebrew idiom, Greek futures can be used you to give a command, e.g. “you will not steal”
    • See Exegesis section at the end of the chapter on different uses of the Future
    • The Future Active is the 2nd principal part (19.5), i.e. the 2nd form listed in the lexical entry.

Forming the Future

There are 4 patterns for forming the Future - we are learning the 1st pattern for now, the one in which the Future Tense Stem of the Future is the same as the Present Tense Stem (19.18,19)

  • Roots ending in ι or υ e.g ἀκούω
  • Contract Verbs (more on this below)
  • Roots ending in a stop (more on this below)

Formation of the Future Indicative Active (19.8-13)

Future Active Tense Stem + Tense Formative σ + Connecting Vowel (ο/ε) + Primary Active Personal endings

  • The Future Active Tense Stem is derived from the 2nd of the 6 Principal Parts (tense forms)
  • Principal Parts e.g. λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα, λέλυμαι, ἐλύθην
  • As with the Present, you drop the ending, including the connecting vowel, from the Principal Part, to get the Tense Stem
  • The Future Tense Stem for Pattern 1 is the same as the Present Tense (19.9)
  • Tense Formative of the Future Tense is σ (19.10)
  • Connecting vowels are the same as in the Present (ο/ε) ο before μ or ν otherwise ε
  • Same endings as the Present (Primary Active)
  • Learn the paradigm in 19.13

Formation of the Future Indicative Middle (19.20-22)

Future Active Tense Stem + Tense Formative σ + Connecting Vowel (ο/ε) + Primary _Passive_ Personal endings

  • Unlike the Present, the Middle and Passive forms are distinct in the Future Tense
  • All Middles we will learn for awhile will be deponent(active in meaning)
  • Verbs which are not deponent in the Present, can be deponent in the Future
    • e.g γινώσκω, γνώσομαι …
    • Learn the paradigm of the deponent future of εἰμί in 19.19
  • Learn the paradigm in 19.22

Contract Verbs in the Future (19.15)

  • We know what happens when the Contract Vowel (final letter of verb stem: α,ε,ο) meets with a connecting vowel, as in the present: they contract
  • When the Contract Vowel, does not encounter a vowel, but another consonant, the Contract Vowel lenghtens
    • α -> η
    • ε -> η
    • ο -> ω
    • This is the case in the future, because the Contract Vowel meets the Tense Formative σ
      • e.g. ἀγαπάω, ἀγαπήσω
    • The accent will always be over the lengthened Contract Vowel, following the rules of accent
    • This is not restricted to the Future, but the Future is an example of this rule applied

Verb stems which end with a stop

  • Apply The Square of Stops to see how it will combine with the Tense Formative σ (19.16)

The Square of Stops (BBG 10.17-20)

Type Voiceless Voiced Aspirate Spirant Double (With Sigma)
Labials π β φ + σ => ψ
Velars(Palatals) κ γ χ + σ => ξ
Dentals τ δ θ + σ => σσ => σ

Future Deponents

  • Whether a verb is deponent in any tense does not depend on whether it is deponent in any other tense
  • That said, in Pattern 1 Futures, which use the same stem as their Present tense, if a verb is deponent in the Present, it will usually also be deponent in the Future.
  • Verify by learning Principal Parts when you memorize verbs

Future of εἰμί (19.24)

  • Middle deponent
  • Root is εσ
  • Follows predictable pattern, but you must know it

See Smyth on Future Active and Middle

Review New Vocabulary

  • βασιλέυς - example of nouns formed with -ευς to denote the person associated. See Lexical Aids p. 52 et al.
  • Note the stems of verbs when learning vocabulary
  • Note how Future lengthens Contract vowels, e.g. γεννάω, προσκυνέω
  • γεννάω in Matthew 1

Video Lectures


  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the “Greek New Testament”:/greek/gntp
  • Quiz next week on chapter 19
    • All vocabulary
    • How form the Future (4 components)
    • Paradigm of Future Active
    • Paradigm of Future Middle
    • How to identify Future deponent
    • How to form Contract Verbs in the Future
    • How to apply the Square of Stops in Formation of the Future
    • Be able to parse anything
    • Translation usually from workbook exercises, possible extra credit for knowing book, chapter and verse
    • Future of εἰμί
    • One more week on memory verse
  • Study chapters 19, and complete workbook exercise 19
  • Read chapter 20 on Verbal Roots, and other forms of the Future
  • Mid-term Exam in 3 weeks - will cover chapters 1-20, esp. chapters 15-20
  • Lexical Aids: No new assignments. Part I pp.1-10 - make sure you know all words with NT occurrences > 150. Pay special attentive to the derivatives
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along
  • Memory Passage: John 14.6 - λέγει αὐτῷ [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς· ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· οὐδεὶς ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸν πατέρα εἰ μὴ δι᾿ ἐμοῦ.

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας