Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

Present Indicative Middle and Passive

  • Voice describes relationship between the verb and the subject:
    • Active - Subject does the action, e.g. “I hit the ball”
    • Passive - Subject receives the action, e.g. “I was hit by the ball” (agency, “by” often clues you in to the Passive voice)
      • English uses “helping verbs” to indicate the Passive Voice, e.g. I am being taught
      • In Greek the agent in a passive verb is expressed by either ὑπό + the genitive, e.g. ὑπ’ Ἄνδρέου “by Andrew” (18.10)
      • or simple Instrumental Dative, e.g. λογῷ τοῦ θεοῦ “by the Word of God”
    • Middle - Subject does the action, and the action somehow returns to the subject, e.g. “I hit the ball (to myself)”
  • You can review English verb tenses in Mounce’s Appendix
  • In the Present Tense, Middles and Passives have the same form (this is not true in all tenses)
  • Present Passive
    • Formed by Present Tense Stem + Connecting Vowel + Primary Passive Personal Endings
    • Formed same as Present Active Indicative, except the Primary Passive Personal Endings are used
    • Learn and Review the paradigm in 18.7
  λύ ομαι (μαι)  
  λύ ῃ (σαι)  
  λύ εται (ται)  
  λυ όμεθα (μεθα)  
  λύ εσθε (σθε)  
  λύ ονται (νται)  
  • Connecting vowels are more visible than in the Active
  • 2nd Person Singular - λυ + ε + σαι - sigma drops out, εαι contracts to ῃ
  • Aspect can be Simple or Continuous, just like Present Active, e.g. “I am hit” or “I am being hit”
  • Present Middle
    • Formed the same as present passive. See paradigm in 18.16
    • Majority of Present Middles, about 75%, in NT are deponent
  • Deponent Verbs - Middle/Passive in form, Active in meaning (18.11)
    • From the Latin deponens “laying aside” since the Middle Voice is “laid aside”
    • You can always tell if a verb is deponent by its lexical form (always middle or passive)
    • Verb may be deponent in one tense, and not in another
    • When you parse a deponent, indicate “deponent” for voice, rather than “Active” or “Middle”
  • Contract Forms of Middle/Passive verbs (Mounce 18.18)
    • Follow the rules of contraction
  • See Smyth on Verb Voices

Master Verb Ending Chart - BBG Appendix under Verb System)

Voice Primary
  λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
  λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
  λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
  λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
  λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
  λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
Middle & Passive  
  λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
  λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
  λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
  λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
  λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
  λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)


Verb Tense Augment/
1st Person
Present Active Present ο/ε Primary Active λύω
Present Middle/Passive Present ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λύομαι
Imperfect Active ε Present ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλυον
Imperfect Middle/Passive ε Present ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυόμην
Future Active Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Active λύσω
Liquid Future Active Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Active μενῶ
Future Middle Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive πορεύομαι
Liquid Future Middle Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive μενοῦμαι
1st Future Passive Aorist Passive θησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λυθήσομαι
2nd Future Passive Aorist Passive ησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive ἀποσταλήσομαι
1st Aorist Active ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Active ἔλυσα
1st Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυσάμην
1st Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive θη Secondary Active ἐλύθην
Liquid Aorist Active ε Aorist Active α Secondary Active ἔμεινα
2nd Aorist Active ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλαβον
2nd Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐγενόμην
2nd Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive η Secondary Active ἐγράφην
1st Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κα Primary Active λέκυκα
2nd Perfect Active λε Perfect Active α Primary Active γέγονα
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Passive Primary Middle/Passive λέκυμαι

Review New Vocabulary

  • Indefinite Relative Pronoun
  • Deponent verbs
  • Total word count > 70%

Video Lectures


  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Quiz next week on chapter 18
    • Components of Passive Middle/Passive Indicative
    • Define deponent verbs, know how to identify them
    • The paradigm for Present Middle/Passive Indicative
    • How agency is expressed in Greek
    • How the 2nd person singular, Present Middle/Passive Indicative contracts
    • Translation - mainly taken from Workbook exercises
  • Study chapters 18, and complete workbook exercise 18
  • Read chapter 19 on the Future Indicative Middle/Passive
  • Lexical Aids: Part I pp.1-10 - make sure you know all words with NT occurrences > 150. Pay special attentive to the derivatives
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along
  • Memory Passage: John 14.6 - λέγει αὐτῷ [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς· ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· οὐδεὶς ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸν πατέρα εἰ μὴ δι᾿ ἐμοῦ.

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας