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Review and Addenda

Present Indicative Active

  • Action usually occurs in present time, from the point of view of the speaker or writer (16.14)
  • Aspect is either Simple (Undefined) or Continuous (Imperfective) (16.13)
  • The Active voice indicates that the subject is performing the action of the verb
  • The Indicative mood states a fact or asks a question. The relationship of the verb to reality is that of actuality, as opposed to wish, desire, probability, command.
  • Components: Present Tense Stem, Connecting Vowel and Personal Ending (16.3)
  • Tense Stem (16.4) - the most basic form of the verb, like the stem of a noun.
    • It carries the basic, primitive meaning of the verb
    • It is usually the same in all tenses
    • You find the stem by removing the connecting vowel and personal ending.
  • Connecting Vowel (16.5) (a.k.a “thematic vowel”) -
    • makes verbs more euphonious, i.e. easier to pronounce
    • when personal ending begins with μ or ν it is omicron
    • otherwise it is epsilon
    • when there is no ending, it can be either
  • Personal Ending (16.6,11)
    • designates Person and Number
    • personal endings indicate the agreement of the verb with its subject (in person and number)
    • when subject is expressed, you can confirm by checking verb’s personal ending
    • either Primary or Secondary - the Present Tense uses Primary endings
  • Active Voice (16.8) - subject does the action, as compared with Middle and Passive Voices
  • The Paradigm and the endings (16.10, 16.11)
  • Personal pronouns in the Nominative Case (16.15)
    • These are optional. When included, it is often for emphasis.
    • The pronoun lets you know the gender of the subject, which the personal ending by itself does not.
    • See Exegetical Insight ἐγώ εἰμι (subject is implicit in Greek verb, when stated explicitly, is is often for emphasis)
  • See Smyth on Present System of Verb

Master Verb Ending Chart - BBG Appendix under Verb System)

Voice Primary
  λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
  λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
  λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
  λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
  λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
  λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
Middle & Passive  
  λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
  λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
  λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
  λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
  λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
  λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)


Verb Tense Augment/
1st Person
Present Active Present ο/ε Primary Active λύω
Present Middle/Passive Present ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λύομαι
Imperfect Active ε Present ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλυον
Imperfect Middle/Passive ε Present ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυόμην
Future Active Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Active λύσω
Liquid Future Active Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Active μενῶ
Future Middle Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive πορεύομαι
Liquid Future Middle Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive μενοῦμαι
1st Future Passive Aorist Passive θησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λυθήσομαι
2nd Future Passive Aorist Passive ησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive ἀποσταλήσομαι
1st Aorist Active ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Active ἔλυσα
1st Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυσάμην
1st Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive θη Secondary Active ἐλύθην
Liquid Aorist Active ε Aorist Active α Secondary Active ἔμεινα
2nd Aorist Active ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλαβον
2nd Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐγενόμην
2nd Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive η Secondary Active ἐγράφην
1st Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κα Primary Active λέκυκα
2nd Perfect Active λε Perfect Active α Primary Active γέγονα
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Passive Primary Middle/Passive λέκυμαι

Review New Vocabulary

  • For verbs, after the number NT occurrences, is listed the verb’s Present Tense Stem, preceded by *
  • Verbs are also listed with their 6 principal parts


  • BBG end of chapter in 3rd edition and later

Video Lectures


  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Quiz next week on chapter 16
    • All vocabulary
    • Components of Present Active Indicative verb
    • Aspects of the Present Tense
    • Be able to write the full paradigm of the Present Active Indicative
    • Use of personal pronouns with verbs
    • Be able to parse verbs in the Present Indicative Active
  • Study chapters 15 and 16, and complete workbook exercise 16
  • Read chapter 17
  • Lexical Aids: Review Part I pp.1-8 and know all words with NT occurrences > 500. Pay special attentive to the derivatives.
  • Read Appendix I, and be able to articulate and give examples of “Grimm’s Law”
  • Consider taking your Greek NT to church, and try reading along
  • Memory passage: Matthew 5.3 - Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας