Gamma Kappa

👋🏼 χαῖρετε μαθηταί

Review and Addenda

  • Review Final Exam from 1st semester
  • Workbook exercises must be completed in order to take tests
  • This semester, you will receive additional assignments from other sources, e.g. Metzger’s Lexical Aids
  • Download Verb Paradigms Chart


  • Verbs describe an action or a state of being (15.2)
  • Verbs have Person, Number, Tense, Voice and Mood
    • Parse in this order, along with Lexical Form and Inflected Meaning (7 elements in a parsed verb)
    • Greek verbs do not have case.


  • 1st (person speaking)
  • 2nd (person spoken to)
  • 3rd (person or thing spoken about)

Since Greek verbs have person implicit in the personal endings, the subject does not have to be explicitly expressed. e.g. “διδάσκω” (‘I teach’) is a complete sentence.


Singular or Plural (15.14, 16)


Present, Imperfect, Future, Aorist, Perfect and Pluperfect

Tense includes both Time and Aspect - more on this below) (15.16)


Active, Middle, Passive (15.11,18)

The relationship between the verb and the subject, e.g. the subject did the action (Active), or the action was done to the subject (Passive), or the action somehow returned to the subject (Middle)


The relationship between the verb and reality, e.g. is it a statement of fact, something probable, something desired, a command, etc., or you could say, “something that is” “something that may be” etc. (15.11)

  • Finite Moods: Indicative, Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative
    • (we will have only the Indicative Mood this semester)
  • Infinite Mood is the “Infinitive” (verbal noun), e.g. “to go” to “to boldly split infinitives as they have been split before”


Tense includes Time and Aspect (Do not confuse “Tense” and “Time”)

  • Time - when the action occurred, from the point of view of the speaker or writer (Past, Present or Future)
  • Aspect (15.8, 17) - what kind or type of action the verb describes (this the genius of the Greek verb):
    • Simple (or undefined) “I eat”
    • Continuous (imperfective) “I am eating”
    • Completed (perfective) “I have eaten”
      • Completed aspect can be punctiliar (snapshot vs. movie [continuous]) - must determine by context (15.9)
    • We can express the same verb, with the aspects above, in a different time e.g. in the past: “I ate” “I was eating” “I had eaten”, or in the future: “I will eat” “I will be eating” “I will have eaten”

Agreement (15.5, 13)

  • Verbs must agree with their subject in Person and Number
  • example for number: “We is studying Greek” or “We are studying Greek”? (or Ebonic: “We be studying Greek”)
  • example for person: “I tells you the truth” or “I tell you the truth” (or Ebonic: “I be tellin yall da troof”)
  • This is done with inflection in Greek, i.e. the personal endings on verbs.

  • Components of the Greek verb (15.19-22): Tense Stem, Connecting Vowel, Personal endings
  • See Smyth on Verbs

Greek Present Indicative Active

  • Agreement (see above) is accomplished by the use of personal endings
    • As in English 3 persons and 2 numbers (singular and plural)
  • Verbs are formed with Present Tense Stem, Connecting Vowel and Personal Ending
  • Parse with 7 elements: Person, Number, Tense, Voice, Mood, Lexical Form and Inflected Meaning
    • Lexical Form is always the 1st Person Singular Present Active Indicative
    • Greek verbs do not have case.

Video Lectures


  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud
  • Quiz next week on chapter 15
    • All vocabulary to date
    • Be able to define “agreement” and how it works with Greek verbs
    • Be able to define and describe the components of the Greek verb: Person, Number, Tense, Voice, Mood
    • Understand the concept of “aspect” and cite the 3 major aspects of the Greek verb: Simple, Continuous, Completed
    • Define “punctiliar”
  • Study chapters 15 and 16, and begin workbook exercise 16
  • Lexical Aids: Read Part I pp.1-8 and know all words with NT occurrences > 500. Pay special attentive to the derivatives

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας