Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

  • Review Workbook exercise 13
  • Review Demonstratives - See Smyth on Demonstrative Pronouns
  • Review Vocative Case
  • Review degrees of the adjective: positive, comparative, superlative

Relative Pronouns

  • in English: who, whom, that, which, whose (14.1)
    • who, whom usually used to refer to humans, masculine or feminine
    • which is usually used to refer to things
    • that, which and whose can be used for either
  • Relative pronouns do not introduce questions. They are not interrogative (14.2)
  • Relative pronouns introduce a dependent clause, known as a relative clause
    • Relative clause consists of the relative pronoun, and the clause it introduces. (14.4)
    • e.g. “The disciple whom Jesus loved” in which “whom Jesus loved” is the relative clause.
    • Relative Clauses are always dependent clauses, so they cannot contain the main subject and verb of the sentence (14.13)
    • Relative clauses usually modify nouns (14.3)
    • Relative clauses must be viewed as a unit - they often perform the same functions as substantives (nouns and adjectives) (14.5, 14.12)
      • Subject - “Whoever is with me is not against me”
      • Direct Object - “We must love whom God has put in our path
      • Object of Preposition “Give what is good to whomever asks
      • In these cases the actual antecedent is often implied, not explicitly stated, e.g. “We must love (‘the people,’ implied) whom God has put in our path
  • What determines Case, Gender and Number (like any other pronoun)?
    • Case determined by function in the relative clause, not in the sentence (14.10)
    • Gender and Number are determined by the antecedent of the relative pronoun, like all pronouns
    • Antecedent is not always in the same sentence, and may not even be explicitly stated (14.9)
  • The paradigm for the relative pronoun (14.7)
    • The accents enables us to differentiate between a relative pronoun and an article in the nominative. See BBG Appendix on the ‘Noun System’ for one view comparison.
    • Follows the familiar 2-1-2 with the common variation of no “ν” in the nominative and accusative singular, like αὐτός and the demonstrative pronouns (14.8)
    • Relative pronouns always take the rough breathing and an accent.
  • Translation (14.11)
    • when the relative clause modifies a word, simply use “who,” “which,” or “that”
      • e.g. “The woman who is gracious, kind and lovely is my wife”
    • when standing in the place of a noun, and functioning as a subject, direct object, or object of a preposition, you may need to supply a pronoun:
      • e.g. εἰσὶν ἔσχατοι οἳ ἔσονται πρῶτοι καὶ εἰσὶν πρῶτοι οἳ ἔσονται ἔσχατοι
        • lit. There are last who will be first and there are first who will be last.
        • supply in this case the indefinite pronoun “some”: There are (some who are) last who will be first and there are (some who are) first who will be last.
      • Use common sense, and your best judgment
  • See Smyth on Relative Pronouns

Exegetical Insight - the relative pronoun in Matthew’s genealogy

Ἰακὼβ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωσὴφ τὸν ἄνδρα Μαρίας, ἐξ ἧς ἐγεννήθη Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος χριστός. ~ Matthew 1.16

Review New Vocabulary

  • ἐνώπιον - ἐν + ὤψ (eye) = “in the eye of” hence “before,” “in the sight of,” “in the presence of”
  • ἐπαγγελία - ἐπί + ἀγγελία (report, announcement) = “announcement upon” hence “promise” esp. a divine promise
  • πλοῖον - What did C.S. Lewis say about this?
  • Review derivatives

Video Lectures


  • Continue to read Greek from the Greek New Testament
  • Complete workbook exercise 14 on Relative Pronouns
  • Complete Review #3 in Workbook - use this as a practice exam

Preparation for Exam

  • on chapters 1-14 (Vocabulary 35%, Grammar 25%, Translation 40%)
  • All vocabulary, with full lexical forms
  • Know the cases, their functions, and their keywords
  • Know the Master Case Endings
  • Know all the 8 Noun Rules
  • Know the different positions of adjectives, and their different uses
  • Be able to parse all 3rd declension nouns we have encountered
  • Be able to translate any passage we have had in workbook
  • Know all memory passages to date (John 1.1c, Colossians 1.16b)
    • John 1.1 - Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος.
    • Colossians 1.16b - τὰ πάντα δι᾿ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν ἔκτισται

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας