Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

  • Review Workbook exercise 12
  • Review of αὐτός


  • Declined like 2-1-2 pattern adjectives with exception in the neuter nominative and accusative singular:
  • does not have the ν (nu) case ending, hence it is αὐτό
  • this is the same sub-pattern of 2-1-2 seen in the definite article ὁ,ἡ,τό

αὐτός is used in 3 distinct ways:

1) 3rd person pronoun (he, she, it)
2) Intensive Adjective (himself, herself, itself) - usually in predicate position
3) Identical Adjective, e.g. “the same man” - usually in attributive position

1) 3rd Personal Pronoun [he, she, it] (12.8)

  • Unlike 1st and 2nd personal pronouns (I, you), αὐτός has gender for obvious reasons: ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’ are masculine, feminine and neuter, respectively.
  • Case is determined by function in sentence, e.g.
    • Genitive: τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ “his brothers”
    • Dative: προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δῶρα “they offered to him gifts”
  • Gender and Number are determined by its antecedent (the word to which it refers)
  • Gender includes grammatical as well as natural gender
  • In the oblique cases (non-nominative), it is most often used this way

2) Adjectival Intensive (12.9-10)

  • as an adjective in the predicate position (usually), translate with the reflexive pronoun: “he himself
  • is usually emphatic
  • ὁ ἄνθρωπος αὐτὸς or αὐτὸς ὁ ἄνθρωπος = “the man himself”
  • since it is not required (verb contains subject implicitly), it is sometimes emphatic
  • not to be confused with the predicate adjective, i.e. not “the man is himself”
  • can also be used with 1st and 2nd personal pronouns: ἐγὼ αὐτός “I myself” or σὺ αὐτός “you yourself”
  • Also known as the Intensive Pronoun
  • As with any other adjective it must agree with what it modifies in case, gender, and number
  • Used this way, it is most often in the nominative case, modifying the subject, e.g. Ἰησοῦς αὐτὸς “Jesus Himself”

3) Identical Adjective (12.11)

  • as an adjective usually in the attributive position “same”. This is the least common of the 3 usages of αὐτός
  • e.g. ὁ αὐτὸς ἄνθρωπος “the same man” or ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ αὐτὸς = “the man, the same one” i.e. “the same man”
  • As with any other adjective it must agree with what it modifies in case, gender, and number, e.g. ὁ αὐτὸς ἄνθρωπος, not ὁ αὐτοῖς ἄνθρωπος
  • Least frequent of the 3 usages

See Smyth on αὐτός

  • Quiz yourself: What are the 3 distinct uses of αὐτός?
  • When you encounter it in a text, identify which of the 3 uses


  • Demonstrative pronouns are the same in Greek as in English: “this/these”, “that/those”
  • They can function either as a pronoun “This book” or an adjective “This book is excellent”
  • Greek has two main demonstratives, though there are others:
    • The proximate (near) demonstrative: οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο (“this, these”)
    • The distant (far) demonstrative: ἐκεῖνος, ἐκείνη, ἐκεῖνο (“that, those”)
  • Both follow the variation of the 2-1-2 pattern for adjectives seen in the article (13.4,5)
    • Neuter Singular, Nominative and Accusative forms have no endings, like αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό
  • οὗτος
    • always begins with rough breathing or tau.
    • The first stem vowel corresponds to the final stem vowel for a given form
  • Demonstratives can be either:
    • Substantival (“This is your book.”) pronoun.
    • Adjectival (“That book is yours.”) adjective.
  • They behave for the most part just like you would expect pronouns and adjectives to behave
    • When functioning as a pronoun
      • case is determined by function in sentence, gender and number are determined by its antecedent, like any other pronoun
      • When translating as a pronoun, you may need to supply words (See 13.7)
      • When used as pronouns, they can function as simple personal pronouns, e.g. οὗτος ἔσται μέγας (“He will be great..”)
    • When functioning as an adjective
      • Case, gender and number are determined by agreement with noun it modifies, like any other adjective.
      • Exception: when adjectival, demonstratives are attributive in sense, but do not use the article (13.8)
      • You could technically say that they are in the predicate position (like Mounce), but this is a little misleading
      • They do not take the article because demonstratives are implicitly definite, and hence need no article
      • Using the article would be awkward as well as redundant, e.g. τὸ τοῦτο (“the this thing”)
  • See Smyth on Demonstrative Pronouns

The Vocative Case

  • Case of Direct Address, from Latin voco, vocare - to call, summon
  • Usually easily discernible by context
  • In plural, form is always same as Nominative
  • Singular forms
    • 1st declension: same as nominative, e.g. ἀδελφή
    • 2nd declension: stem + epsilon, e.g. διδάσκαλε
    • 3rd declension: (usually) stem with no ending, e.g. πόλι - the stem vowel sometimes changes (ablaut)

Degrees of Adjective

  • Postitive, e.g. μέγας (“large”)
  • Comparative, e.g. μείζων (“larger”)
  • Superlative, e.g. μέγιστος (“largest”)


  • When two words “crash” together, e.g. καί + ἐγώ = κἀγώ

Review New Vocabulary

  • δικαιοσυνή
    • Lexical Aids chapter II - Words classified according to their root
    • Suffixes, specifically the idea of quality, p.43 #4.

Video Lectures


  • Continue to read Greek from the Greek New Testament
  • Complete workbook exercise 13 on Demonstratives
  • Read and study chapter 14 on Relative Pronouns
  • Note: 1 more quiz before the Final Exam for the semester (on 13)
  • Prepare for quiz on chapter 13
    • Understand the Demonstrative Pronouns/Adjectives
    • All vocabulary to date
    • Know all the 8 Noun Rules
    • Be able to parse all 3rd declension nouns we have encountered
    • Be able to translate
    • Know the memory verse

Memory verse: Colossians 1.16b

τὰ πάντα δι᾿ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν ἔκτισται

  • ἔκτισται = “They were created”
  • εἰς = in this context, indicates purpose: “for”

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας