Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

  • Review Workbook exercise 11
  • Review Pronouns - See Smyth on Pronouns
    • What determines case, person and number?
    • What determines gender for 1st and 2nd personal pronouns? (nothing-they have no gender)
  • Review 3rd declension forms
    • Consonantal Iota stems - how/why can iota be consonantal
    • variation between ι and ε as final letter of stem
      • ε when case ending begins with a vowel, e.g. πίστε ως
      • ι when case ending begin with consonant (except σ in dative plural), e.g πίστι ν
  • Review Noun Rules

The Eight Noun Rules (BBG Appendix ~p.344)

  1. Stems ending in α,η are 1st declension, stems ending in o are 2nd, consonantal stems are 3rd
  2. Neuters are always the same in Nominative and Accusative
  3. Almost all neuter plurals end in -α in the Nominative and Accusative Plural
  4. Iota always subscripts in Dative singular, if possible (not possible in 3rd declension, since iota only subscripts under vowels)
  5. Vowels often change their length (Ablaut)
  6. Masculine and Neuter always the same in Genitive and Dative
  7. The Square of Stops (See below)
  8. Tau cannot stand at the end of a word, and will drop off (ντ + ς = ς)

    The Square of Stops (BBG 10.17-20)

    Type Voiceless Voiced Aspirate Spirant Double (With Sigma)
    Labials π β φ + σ => ψ
    Velars(Palatals) κ γ χ + σ => ξ
    Dentals τ δ θ + σ => σσ => σ


  • Declined like 2-1-2 pattern adjectives with exception in the neuter nominative and accusative singular:
  • does not have the ν (nu) case ending, hence it is αὐτό
  • this is the same sub-pattern of 2-1-2 seen in the definite article ὁ,ἡ,τό

αὐτός is used in 3 distinct ways:

1) 3rd person pronoun (he, she, it)
2) Intensive Adjective (himself, herself, itself) - usually in predicate position
3) Identical Adjective, e.g. “the same man” - usually in attributive position

1) 3rd Personal Pronoun [he, she, it] (12.8)

  • Unlike 1st and 2nd personal pronouns (I, you), αὐτός has gender for obvious reasons: ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’ are masculine, feminine and neuter, respectively.
  • Case is determined by function in sentence, e.g.
    • Genitive: τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ “his brothers”
    • Dative: προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δῶρα “they offered to him gifts”
  • Gender and Number are determined by its antecedent (the word to which it refers)
  • Gender includes grammatical as well as natural gender
  • In the oblique cases (non-nominative), it is most often used this way

2) Adjectival Intensive (12.9-10)

  • as an adjective in the predicate position (usually), translate with the reflexive pronoun: “he himself
  • is usually emphatic
  • ὁ ἄνθρωπος αὐτὸς or αὐτὸς ὁ ἄνθρωπος = “the man himself”
  • since it is not required (verb contains subject implicitly), it is sometimes emphatic
  • not to be confused with the predicate adjective, i.e. not “the man is himself”
  • can also be used with 1st and 2nd personal pronouns: ἐγὼ αὐτός “I myself” or σὺ αὐτός “you yourself”
  • Also known as the Intensive Pronoun
  • As with any other adjective it must agree with what it modifies in case, gender, and number
  • Used this way, it is most often in the nominative case, modifying the subject, e.g. Ἰησοῦς αὐτὸς “Jesus Himself”

3) Identical Adjective (12.11)

  • as an adjective usually in the attributive position “same”. This is the least common of the 3 usages of αὐτός
  • e.g. ὁ αὐτὸς ἄνθρωπος “the same man” or ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ αὐτὸς = “the man, the same one” i.e. “the same man”
  • As with any other adjective it must agree with what it modifies in case, gender, and number, e.g. ὁ αὐτὸς ἄνθρωπος, not ὁ αὐτοῖς ἄνθρωπος
  • Least frequent of the 3 usages

See Smyth on αὐτός

Review New Vocabulary

Video Lectures


  • Continue to read Greek from the Greek New Testament
  • Complete workbook exercise 12 on αὐτός
  • Read and study chapter 13 on Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives
  • Note: 2 more quizzes before the Final Exam for the semester (on 12 and 13)
  • Prepare for quiz on chapter 12
    • Understand the 3 uses of αὐτός
    • All vocabulary to date
    • Ensure that you know all the 8 Noun Rules
    • Be able to parse all 3rd declension nouns we have encountered

Next memory verse: Colossians 1.16b

τὰ πάντα δι᾿ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν ἔκτισται

  • ἔκτισται = “They were created”
  • εἰς = in this context, indicates purpose: “for”

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας