Gamma Kappa

👋🏼 χαῖρετε μαθηταί

Review and Addenda

  • Review Workbook exercise 10
  • Review Case Endings

Master Case Ending Chart (BBG Appendix, ~ p.345)

First and Second Declension Third Declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masc / Fem Neuter
Nom Sg ς - ν ς / - -
Gen Sg υ ς υ ος ος
Dat Sg ι ι ι ι ι
Acc Sg ν ν ν α / ν -
Nom Pl ι ι α ες α
Gen Pl ων ων ων ων ων
Dat Pl ις ις ις σι(ν) σι(ν)
Acc Pl υς ς α ας α

Right-click here to download (Save Link As...) a blank chart for practice.

  • Review Noun Rules

The Eight Noun Rules (BBG Appendix ~p.344)

  1. Stems ending in α,η are 1st declension, stems ending in o are 2nd, consonantal stems are 3rd
  2. Neuters are always the same in Nominative and Accusative
  3. Almost all neuter plurals end in -α in the Nominative and Accusative Plural
  4. Iota always subscripts in Dative singular, if possible (not possible in 3rd declension, since iota only subscripts under vowels)
  5. Vowels often change their length (Ablaut)
  6. Masculine and Neuter always the same in Genitive and Dative
  7. The Square of Stops (See below)
  8. Tau cannot stand at the end of a word, and will drop off (ντ + ς = ς)

    The Square of Stops (BBG 10.17-20)

    Type Voiceless Voiced Aspirate Spirant Double (With Sigma)
    Labials π β φ + σ => ψ
    Velars(Palatals) κ γ χ + σ => ξ
    Dentals τ δ θ + σ => σσ => σ

  • Review Categories of Adjectives
    • 2-1-2 - ἀγαθός, -ή, -όν
    • 3-1-3 - πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν
    • 2-2 - αἰώνιος, ον
    • 3-3 - τίς, τί
  • Review paradigms of πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν and τίς, τί
  • Review Rules of Accent - See Smyth on Accents


  • Definition: same as in English, a word that replaces a noun
  • Case is determined by function in sentence, just like nouns and substantival adjectives
  • Person and Number are determined its antecedent (the noun to which the pronoun refers)
    • 1st and 2nd personal pronouns (I, you) have no gender
  • Note that English pronouns are still rather inflected (I,my,me,we,our,us; you,your,you,you,your,you)
  • See Smyth on Pronouns

1st and 2nd person pronouns(11.6-11.10)

  • Endings are similar to what you have already learned
  • Plurals identical except for 1st letter η or υ
  • Parsing, specify person instead of gender (1st and 2nd person pronouns have no gender)
  • Emphatic forms for 1st person singular in oblique cases, i.e. non-nominative - genitive, dative and accusative - ἐμοῦ, ἐμοί, ἐμέ
  • Emphatic forms for 2nd person singular in oblique cases normally enclitic σου, σοι, σε are accented and become σοῦ, σοί, σέ - used to emphasize contrast between persons
  • Possessive forms (genitive) of pronouns usually follow the word the modify, e.g. διδάσκαλός μου

More 3rd Declension

  • Stems in tau and delta (dentals) - follow the same pattern, apply the same rules (Case ending paradigm, Noun rules)
    • e.g. dentals (τ,δ,θ) drop out before σ ending (nominative singular, dative plural)
  • Consonantal iota stems -
    • iota was once also consonantal ‘y’ remnants in words like Ἰησοῦς
    • these kind of words, e.g. πίστις, will have stems which end either in ι or ε
      • ι before consonant endings
      • ε before vowel endings
      • review paradigm of πίστις as an example (11.12)
    • they are always feminine
    • they use ν as the accusative singular case ending
  • Stems in rho - Paradigms of μήτηρ and πατήρ, ὕδωρ
    • Stem varies

Review New Vocabulary

Video Lectures


  • Continue to read Greek from the Greek New Testament
  • Complete workbook exercise 11 on 1st and 2nd Personal Pronouns
  • Read and study chapter 12 on αὐτός
  • Prepare for quiz on chapter 11
    • Memorize 1st and 2nd person pronoun paradigms (11.6)
    • Ensure that you know the complete Master Case Ending Paradigm
    • Know all the 8 Noun Rules
    • Be able to parse all 3rd declension nouns we have encountered
    • Remember to print and use the weekly checklist
    • Memory Passage - John 1.1

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας