Gamma Kappa

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Review and Addenda

The Eight Noun Rules (BBG Appendix ~p.344)

  1. Stems ending in α,η are 1st declension, stems ending in o are 2nd, consonantal stems are 3rd
  2. Neuters are always the same in Nominative and Accusative
  3. Almost all neuter plurals end in -α in the Nominative and Accusative Plural
  4. Iota always subscripts in Dative singular, if possible (not possible in 3rd declension, since iota only subscripts under vowels)
  5. Vowels often change their length (Ablaut)
  6. Masculine and Neuter always the same in Genitive and Dative
  7. The Square of Stops (See below)
  8. Tau cannot stand at the end of a word, and will drop off (ντ + ς = ς)

    The Square of Stops (BBG 10.17-20)

    Type Voiceless Voiced Aspirate Spirant Double (With Sigma)
    Labials π β φ + σ => ψ
    Velars(Palatals) κ γ χ + σ => ξ
    Dentals τ δ θ + σ => σσ => σ

3rd Declension

Helpful Hints

  1. How to find the stem: drop genitive singular ending, e.g. σαρκος - ος = σαρκ (memorize the genitive singular form with the lexical form)
  2. Whatever happens in the nominative singular also happens in the dative plural, e.g. σάρξ σαρξί (κ + σ => ξ)
  3. nu, tau, and nu and tau drop out when followed by sigma (ν/τ/ντ + ς = ς) (application of rules 7 & 8)

Forms (10.10)

  • κ stem (σαρξ)
  • ματ stem (ὄνομα, πνεῦμα, σῶμα) - are always neuter
  • ν stem (τίς, τί)
  • et alia
  • All 3rd declension nouns whose stems end in -μα are neuter, e.g. πνεῦμα, -ατος, τό
  • See Smyth on 3rd Declension

Paradigm of all Case Endings (10.14)

Master Case Ending Chart (BBG Appendix, ~ p.345)

First and Second Declension Third Declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masc / Fem Neuter
Nom Sg ς - ν ς / - -
Gen Sg υ ς υ ος ος
Dat Sg ι ι ι ι ι
Acc Sg ν ν ν α / ν -
Nom Pl ι ι α ες α
Gen Pl ων ων ων ων ων
Dat Pl ις ις ις σι(ν) σι(ν)
Acc Pl υς ς α ας α

Right-click here to download (Save Link As...) a blank chart for practice.

Categories of Adjectives (10.23)

  • 2-1-2 - ἀγαθός, -ή, -όν
  • 3-1-3 - πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν (10.22)
  • 2-2 - αἰώνιος, ον
  • 3-3 - τίς, τί (10.11)

More Uses of the Article (10.24)

  • as a weak demonstrative, e.g. “ὁ δὲ…” (but he…)
  • before a prepositional phrase (cf 9.14), e.g. οἱ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ

Learn New Vocabulary

Video Lectures


  • Continue to read Greek from the Greek New Testament
  • Complete workbook exercise 10 on 3rd Declension
  • Read and study chapter 11 on Personal Pronouns
  • Prepare for quiz on chapter 10
    • Memorize the complete Case Ending Paradigm
    • Know all the 8 Noun Rules
    • Know the Square of Stops - how sigma combines with different endings)
    • Know how to find 3rd declension stems
    • Be able to parse 3rd declension nouns
    • Know the 4 categories of adjectives
    • Memorize 3-1-3 adjective paradigm of πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν (10.22)
    • Memory Passage, John 1.1

Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος.

  • Remember to print and use the weekly checklist
    • Master Case Ending paradigm - print and use worksheet to practice
    • 3-1-3 adjective paradigm of πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν

The Lord's Prayer

ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑθθΑΙΟΝ 6.9-13
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
    ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
    γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη,
Διδάσκαλος Ἀνδρέας