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Review and Addenda

The Square of Stops (BBG 10.17-20)

Type Voiceless Voiced Aspirate Spirant Double (With Sigma)
Labials π β φ + σ => ψ
Velars(Palatals) κ γ χ + σ => ξ
Dentals τ δ θ + σ => σσ => σ
  • Why is the square of stops important?
  • It helps us to understand part of the mechanics of language
  • It enables us to make sense of morphological (derivative) changes of the verb later on
  • Transliteration - What it is (changing letters to those of another language, without translation)
  • examples to English: baptism, eschaton
  • example to Greek: αι κημ αι σα αι κανκυρδ (“I came, I saw, I conquered”)
  • Written Greek: no spaces, punctuation, diacritical marks (accents, breathings); all majuscules, in original MSS (manuscripts)

Piece of the Codex Vaticanus Manuscript

Vaticanus

Punctuation

  • , = comma, minor pause, as in English

  • . = period, ends a sentence, as in English

  • ˚ (dot above line) = semi-colon (half of a colon), major pause

  • ; = question mark

Diacritical Marks

  • Diaeresis (derivative, διαιρέσις, from διαιρέω + “to cleave in twain”)
  • Apostrophe (derivative αποστροφή = “a turning back”)
  • Breathing Marks (rough and smooth), at the beginning of word beginning with a vowel or diphthong
  • Rough breathing ῾ indicates an initial ‘h’ sound
  • Smooth breathing ᾽ indicates no initial ‘h’ sound
  • All words beginning with ρ or υ have an initial rough breathing
  • Accents

Accents: Acute ά - Grave ὰ - Circumflex ᾶ

  • Originally a pitch accent, i.e. the rising and falling of tones, as in music.
  • Later became a stress accent as in English

Learn the 4 Rules of Accent (BBG 4.5)

  1. The acute accent can occur on any of the last 3 syllables (ultima, penult, antepenult)
  2. The circumflex can occur only over one of the last 2 syllables (ultima, penult), and always stands over a long vowel
  3. The grave accent stands over the last syllable (ultima) only, when the word normally with the acute accent on the ultima is not followed by a mark of punctuation
  4. Nouns have consistent accent, and verbs have recessive accent
  • For more in depth explanation, read Smyth on Accents

  • Proclitics and Enclitics are words which lose their accent (BBG sidenote)
  • Proclitics (lit. “leaning forward”) throw their accents forward to the following word, e.g.
  • Enclitics (lit. “leaning backward”) throw their accents backward to the preceding word–

Syllabification

Intuitive for the most part, mainly the same as English, thus should be mostly second nature

  1. One vowel (or diphthong) per syllable
    • no silent vowels
    • hence, consecutive vowels, which are not diphthongs, are divided
  2. Consonants usually go with following vowels
    • Single consonants go with following vowels
    • Consonant clusters stay together if they can be pronounced together (could they begin a word?), and go with the following vowels
  3. Consonants which divide:
    • Cannot be pronounced together
    • Double consonants
  4. Compound words divide (they would almost always anyway, following the basic rules)

Read Smyth on Syllables

Vocabulary

  • ~ 5430 words in New Testament, you have only to learn 319 to know 80% of total words
  • After each new vocabulary word, you will be told how many occurrences in Greek NT
  • Metzger’s Lexical Aids is arranged to teach vocabulary in order of frequency.
  • Correction to Mounce on terminology: Cognates and Derivatives p. 16 ff.
  • from the “Introduction to Smyth’s Greek Grammar, Section B.

Greek is related to the languages of the Indians (Sanskrit), Persians (Zend), Armenians, Albanians, Slavonians, Lituanians, Romans, Celts, and Germans. These various languages are all of the same stock, and together constitute the Indo-European family of languages. an important relation of Greek to English, which is a branch of the Germanic tongue is illustrated by Grimm’s law of the ‘permutation of consonants’

πατήρ father τρεῖς three δύο two ἀγρός acre φέρω bear θύρᾱ door

The above English words are said to be cognate with the Greek words. Derived words, such as geography, theatre, are borrowed, directly or indirectly from the Greek ( γεωγραφίᾱ, θέᾱτρον )”

  • Refer to chart of cognates from the first lecture/
  • See also Metzger’s Lexical Aids, pp. 77-78
  • Review Chapter 4 vocabulary, consider derivatives

Video Lectures

Assigments

  • Continue to read Greek out loud. Read the passage in workbook exercise 4.
  • Watch Dr. Mounce’s video above to help you with this
  • Workbook exercise 4 on Syllabification, and Review on chapters 1-4
  • Prepare for quiz next week on everything through chapter 4
  • Read the overview for Chapters 5-9
  • Read and study chapter 5 and 6 on Nouns, Nominative and Accusative cases, and the definite article.

The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.