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Summary of Greek Moods

Moods indicate the relation of the action of the verb to reality.

INDICATIVE – the mood of reality

  • Latin indicatus, past participle of indicare, from in- + dicare to proclaim
  • “constituting a verb form that represents the denoted act or state as an objective fact” (Webster)
  • The Indicative Mood is the mood of reality
  • We have studied only the Indicative Mood thus far.

    • whether making a statement, or asking a question about what is factual and real.

  • This does not mean that everything stated in the Indicative Mood is true, but only that it is being stated

    • as opposed to being wished for, hoped for, commanded, considered a possiblity, etc.

    • If someone says “Jesus was just a good teacher”, he is making a statement about reality, from his point of view. Therefore it is Indicative, though it is not actually true.

  • This is the only mood which has time significance. All the other moods have significance of aspect only

SUBJUNCTIVE – the mood of possibility

  • Latin subjunctivus, from subjunctus, past participle of subjungere to join beneath, subordinate
  • “constituting a verb form that represents a denoted act or state not as fact but as contingent or possible” (Webster)

OPTATIVE – the mood of wish

  • Latin optativus, from optare to wish
  • “constituting a verbal mood that is expressive of wish or desire” (Webster)

IMPERATIVE – the mood of command

  • Latin imperativus, from imperatus, past participle of imperare to command
  • “constituting the grammatical mood that expresses the will to influence the behavior of another” (Webster)

Quick Test on Subjunctives

  • What is this?

μὴ ὁ νόμος ἡμῶν κρίνει τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐὰν μὴ ἀκούσῃ πρῶτον παρ᾿ αὐτοῦ καὶ γνῷ τί ποιεῖ; (John 7.51)

Review Infinitives

  • The Infinitive is a Verbal Noun, just as the participle is a verbal adjective.
    • Usually recognizable in English by the key word “to,” e.g. “The chief end of man is to glorify God, and to enjoy Him forever”
    • Like the participle, the infinitive is strictly speaking, not a mood
      • moods apply to finite forms of the verb, which the participle and the infinitive are not.
      • Moods are finite (limited), the infinitive is infinite (unlimited), i.e. unbound by person, number, etc., hence its name
      • However, we identify it in the place of Mood when parsing, e.g. “Present Active Infinitive” + + Lexical Form + Inflected Meaning (32.11)
    • As a verbal noun, the infinitive can do anything a substantive can, just as a participle (verbal adjective) can do anything an adjective can (32.13)
      • When used substantivally, the infinitive is usually articular
      • When articular, the article is always neuter singular
        • e.g. ἀγαπῶ τὸ διδάσκειν – I love to teach (τὸ διδάσκειν is the direct object)
        • e.g. Ἐμοὶ γὰρ τὸ ζῆν Χριστὸς καὶ τὸ ἀποθανεῖν κέρδος. (Philippians 1.21) (the 2 articular infinitives are the subjects, in predicate nominative constructions)
        • What determines the case of the article? How the infinitive is functioning in the sentence
      • It can have a direct object (to go home) and adverbial modifiers (to boldly go)
  • Indeclinable, since it is not bound by declinable attributes like person and number
    • It is treated as neuter singular
    • Just one ending to learn, since it is not declined (32.4)
  • No time significance, only aspect, like the participle, and other non-indicatives (32.3)
    • Present – Continuous Aspect
      • e.g. μαρτυρεῖν = “to continue to bear witness” or “to be bearing witness”
    • Aorist – Simple Aspect
      • e.g. μαρτυρήσαι = simply “to bear witness”
    • Perfect – Completed Aspect
      • e.g. μεμαρτυρηκέναι = “to have born witness”
  • Since it is non-indicative, it is negated by μή (32.10)
  • Built on the tense of its name:
    • Present on Present Tense Stem
    • Aorist Active/Middle on (unaugmented) Aorist Active/Middle Tense Stem
    • Aorist Passive on (unaugmented) Aorist Passive Tense Stem
    • Perfect Active on Perfect Active Tense Stem
    • Perfect Middle/Passive on Perfect Middle/Passive Tense Stem
  • Paradigms of the Infinitive (32.4-5, p. 366)
    • all Infinitives end in -αι except the Present and 2nd Aorist Active
    • As with Participles and Subjunctives, the Present and 2nd Aorist Infinitives look the same, and can only be distinguished by the stem.

Infinitive (BBG p.356)

  Present   1st Aorist   2nd Aorist   Perfect  
Active ειν σαι ειν κεναι
Middle εσθαι σασθαι εσθαι σθαι
Passive    εσθαι θηναι ηναι σθαι
  • Remember Rules of Contraction for Infinitives of Contract Verbs (32.6)
    • α + ειν => ᾶν
    • o + ειν => οῦν
    • ε + ειν => εῖν
  • When the infinitive needs a subject in a clause, it in the accusative
    • It is called the Accusative of Reference
    • this is analogous to the subject of participle in a Genitive Absolute being in the genitive case
    • e.g. καὶ προαγαγὼν αὐτοὺς ἔξω ἔφη· κύριοι, τί με δεῖ ποιεῖν ἵνα σωθῶ; (Acts 16.30) (“I” am the one to be saved)
    • e.g. καὶ λέγουσίν μοι· δεῖ σε πάλιν προφητεῦσαι ἐπὶ λαοῖς καὶ ἔθνεσιν καὶ γλώσσαις καὶ βασιλεῦσιν πολλοῖς. (Revelation 10.11) (“you” are the one to prophesy, not to be prophesied to )
    • The Accusative of Reference can sometimes be seen as accusative with relation to the main verb.
      • e.g. τί με ζητεῖτε ἀποκτεῖναι; (John 7.19) (They are seeking Jesus, to kill him, με is accusative in relation to ζητέω)
    • Exceptions: ἔξεστι + infinitive and παραγγέλλω + infinitive
      • those infinitives take a dative subject
      • e.g. ἔλεγεν γὰρ ὁ Ἰωάννης αὐτῷ· οὐκ ἔξεστίν σοι ἔχειν αὐτήν. (Matthew 14.4) (“you” is the one having)
      • e.g. παραγγέλλει διδαξαί μοι – “He is commanding me to teach” (I teach)
    • When an infinitive has both an Accusative of Reference (subject) and a direct object, you must determine by context which is which, though usually the first accusative will be the “subject”
      • e.g. καὶ ἐν τῷ εἰσαγαγεῖν τοὺς γονεῖς τὸ παιδίον Ἰησοῦν (Luke 2.27)
    • Verbs which take their direct object in the dative, will often take their subject with the infinitive in the dative also.
  • Deponent verbs will have deponent infinitives, e.g. προσεύχεσθαι = “to pray”
  • The Present Infinitive of εἰμί is εἷναι

5 Uses of the Infinitive

  • Substantive (32.13)
    • As a verbal noun, the infinitive can do anything a substantive can, just as a participle (verbal adjective) can do anything an adjective can (32.13)
    • Usually articular, e.g. καὶ τὸ ἀγαπᾶν τὸν πλησίον ὡς ἑαυτὸν περισσότερόν ἐστιν πάντων τῶν ὁλοκαυτωμάτων καὶ θυσιῶν (Mark 12.33)
  • Complementary (32.14)
    • Completes the meaning of the verb, especially with verbs which require something additional by nature like δεῖ, θέλω, βούλομαι, etc.
    • e.g. Γινώσκειν δὲ ὑμᾶς βούλομαι, ἀδελφοί (Philippians 1.12)
    • 5 verbs require a complementary infinitive: δεῖ, ἔξεστιν, μέλλω, δυναμαι, ἄρχομαι
    • e.g. καὶ ὅπου εἰμὶ ἐγὼ ὑμεῖς οὐ δύνασθε ἐλθεῖν. (John 7.34)
    • e.g. ποῦ οὗτος μέλλει πορεύεσθαι ὅτι ἡμεῖς οὐχ εὑρήσομεν αὐτόν; (John 7.35)
    • e.g. καὶ λέγουσίν μοι· δεῖ σε πάλιν προφητεῦσαι ἐπὶ λαοῖς καὶ ἔθνεσιν καὶ γλώσσαις καὶ βασιλεῦσιν πολλοῖς. (Revelation 10.11)
  • Purpose (32.16)
    • Answers the question “why?”
    • Genitive articular infinitive (32.16.2)
      • e.g Ἡρῴδης ζητεῖν τὸ παιδίον τοῦ ἀπολέσαι αὐτό. (Matthew 2.13)
    • Non-articular infinitive, with no preposition (32.16.3)
      • e.g Μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον καταλῦσαι τὸν νόμον ἢ τοὺς προφήτας· (Matthew 5.17)
    • With prepostions εἰς or πρός (see below)
  • Result (32.17)
    • ὥστε + infinitive (32.17)
    • e.g. καὶ ἐὰν ἔχω πᾶσαν τὴν πίστιν ὥστε ὄρη μεθιστάναι, ἀγάπην δὲ μὴ ἔχω, οὐθέν εἰμι. (1 Corinthians 13.2)
  • Indirect discourse (32.18-19)
    • usually introduced by ὅτι equivalent to the keyword “that” in English
      • He said that he was going to study
    • can be expressed without an infinitive
      • e.g. Mark 6.15 ἄλλοι δὲ ἔλεγον ὅτι Ἠλίας ἐστίν· ἄλλοι δὲ ἔλεγον ὅτι προφήτης ὡς εἷς τῶν προφητῶν.
    • can also be expressed with an infinitive
      • e.g. Mark 12.18 Καὶ ἔρχονται Σαδδουκαῖοι πρὸς αὐτόν, οἵτινες λέγουσιν ἀνάστασιν μὴ εἶναι

Articular, preceded by preposition (32.15)

  • The most idiomatic use of the infinitive – essential that you learn to “think in Greek”
  • For prepositions with infinitives, the keywords of the prepositions will help you understand and translate the construction: e.g. δία + accusative = “on account of”, πρό + genitive = “before”
  • Purpose (32.15.2-3 examples)
    • εἰς + accusative articular infinitive = “in order that” (indicates purpose)
      • e.g. καὶ ἀπήγαγον αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ σταυρῶσαι. (Matthew 27.31)
    • πρός + accusative articular infinitive = “in order that” (indicates purpose)
      • e.g. ἐνδύσασθε τὴν πανοπλίαν τοῦ θεοῦ πρὸς τὸ δύνασθαι ὑμᾶς στῆναι πρὸς τὰς μεθοδείας τοῦ διαβόλου· (Ephesians 6.11)
    • δία + accusative articular infinitive = “because” (explains reason for)
      • e.g. αὐτὸς δὲ Ἰησοῦς οὐκ ἐπίστευεν αὐτὸν αὐτοῖς διὰ τὸ αὐτὸν γινώσκειν πάντας (John 2.24)
  • Temporal (32.15.4-6 examples)
    • πρό + genitive articular infinitive = “before”
      • e.g. οἶδεν γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὧν χρείαν ἔχετε πρὸ τοῦ ὑμᾶς αἰτῆσαι αὐτόν. (Matthew 6.8)
    • ἐν + dative articular infinitive = “when / while”
      • e.g. προσεῖχον δὲ οἱ ὄχλοι τοῖς λεγομένοις ὑπὸ τοῦ Φιλίππου ὁμοθυμαδὸν ἐν τῷ ἀκούειν αὐτοὺς καὶ βλέπειν τὰ σημεῖα ἃ ἐποίει. (Acts 8.6)
    • μετά + accusative articular infinitive = “after”
      • e.g. μετὰ δὲ τὸ ἐγερθῆναί με προάξω ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν. (Matthew 26.32)

Imperatives

  • The mood of command
    • A direct command, as to a subordinate
    • When addressing a superior, such as God, Imperative of Entreaty, (33.17) e.g. Matt 6.10 – ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου
  • Tense: occurs in the Present (Continuous aspect), the Aorist (Simple aspect) and rarely in the Perfect (33.20) (Completed aspect)
    • as with all non-indicative moods, the tense of the Imperative has no time significance, only aspect
  • Person: occurs in both the 2nd person(direct command), and 3rd person.
    • 2nd person, e.g. βλέπε “Look!” or λέγει αὐτῷ Φίλιππος· ἔρχου καὶ ἴδε (John 1.46) “Come and see”
    • 3rd person, e.g. βλεπέτω “Let him look” or “He must look” or ἐάν τις διψᾷ ἐρχέσθω πρός με καὶ πινέτω. (John 7.37) “Let him come” and “let him drink”
  • Formation of the Imperative (33.5-8)
    • Present: Present Stem + Connecting Vowel + Imperative Morpheme
    • Aorist: (Unaugmented) Aorist Stem + Tense Formative (σα/θη) + Imperative Morpheme
    • 2nd Aorist: (Unaugmented) 2nd Aorist Stem + Imperative Morpheme (33.10)
      • Morpheme is same as Present in Active and Middle
      • Morpheme is same as 1st Aorist in Passive, but no Tense Formative (θη)
    • Morphemes should be memorized. Everything else is quite regular
    • Note: 2nd singular forms should be memorized
      • they seem to be irregular, but are not really.
      • See MBG #71-72, p. 143ff.
        • Intervocalic σιγμα drops out, and vowels contract regularly
        • In 2nd person singular middle/passive: λυ + ε + σο => λυεο => λύου
        • 2nd singular Aorist Active form is not easily explainable: λῦσον
      • All things considered, it is probably easier just to memorize the 2nd singular forms

Particple Morphemes – learn from the following chart (33.6-7)

Imperative (BBG p.356, 365)

  Active & and Aorist Passive Middle/Passive  
2 sg    ε   σο
3 sg    τω   σθω
2 pl    τε   σθε
3 pl    τωσαν   σθσαν
  • Deponent verbs have deponent imperatives
    • The Present Imperative, 2nd Personal singular of ἔρχομαι is ἔρχου, e.g. λέγει αὐτῷ Φίλιππος· ἔρχου καὶ ἴδε. (John 1.46)
  • Review the paradigm (33.8)
  • Contract verbs contract regularly (stem vowel + connecting vowel) for Present Imperatives (33.11, p.366)
  • εἰμί Present Imperatives are built off of εσ (33.12) – you must learn these forms.
  • Ambiguous forms – 2nd person plural, Active and Middle, are the same in the Imperative as in the Indicative (33.9)
    • Present: ετε, εσθε – context must determine
      • e.g. John 14.1 – Μὴ ταρασσέσθω ὑμῶν ἡ καρδία· πιστεύετε εἰς τὸν θεὸν καὶ εἰς ἐμὲ πιστεύετε (Imperative must determined by context – The 3rd person imperative ταρασσέσθω gives help)
      • e.g. Mark 11.22 – καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγει αὐτοῖς· ἔχετε πίστιν θεοῦ. (again Imperative is determined by context)
    • Aorist: σατε, σασθε – the Imperative will have no temporal augment
    • 2nd person singular Aorist Active Imperative looks like Aorist Infinitive
      • e.g. λῦσαι

Six ways to express prohibition (33.18)

  1. οὐ + Future Indicative = a general prohibtion, e.g. “You shall not steal”
    • e.g. Καὶ ὅταν προσεύχησθε, οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί, (Matthew 6.5)
    • cf. Matthew 19.18, Matthew 20.27, I Peter 1.16
    • See GGBB p.569ff.
  2. μή + Present Imperative = prohibits a continuous action, usually attitude or general precept/conduct, e.g. “Do not gossip”
    • e.g. μὴ φοβοῦ, μόνον πίστευε. (Mark 5.36)
    • cf. also Romans 6.12
  3. μή + Aorist Imperative = simple prohibition, usually for a specific case, to cease some action, e.g. “Stop talking during class”
    • e.g. μὴ οὖν ὁμοιωθῆτε αὐτοῖς· οἶδεν γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὧν χρείαν ἔχετε πρὸ τοῦ ὑμᾶς αἰτῆσαι αὐτόν. (Matthew 6.8)
  4. μή + Aorist Subjuctive = Prohibitive Subjunctive stronger prohibition (“No!”)
    • e.g. μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι εἶπόν σοι· δεῖ ὑμᾶς γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν. (John 3.7)
    • cf. also Matthew 1.20, Romans 10.6, Rev. 22.10
    • See GGBB p.469
  5. οὐ μή + Aorist Subjuctive = Emphatic Negation, even stronger prohibition (“Certainly Not! Never!”)
    • e.g. καὶ πᾶς ὁ ζῶν καὶ πιστεύων εἰς ἐμὲ οὐ μὴ ἀποθάνῃ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. πιστεύεις τοῦτο; (John 11.26)
    • See GGBB, p. 468ff.
  6. μή + Optative = strong negative wish,
    • e.g. Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; ἐπιμένωμεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, ἵνα ἡ χάρις πλεονάσῃ; 2 μὴ γένοιτο. (Romans 6.1–2) μή γένοιτο (“May it never be!”)

New Vocabulary

Scripture Memory for next class

καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός γενηθήτω φῶς καὶ ἐγένετο φῶς (Genesis 1.3)

3rd Person Sg, Aor Passive Imperative of γίνομαι

Assignments

  • Weekly Memorization: Gen. 1.3 – καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεός γενηθήτω φῶς καὶ ἐγένετο φῶς
  • Review past passages
  • Complete workbook exercise 33 on Imperatives
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 33 – Imperatives
    • know how to form the Imperative. (2nd singular forms should be memorized)
    • be able to give imperative forms of any verb we have had thus far
    • memorize the imperatives for εἰμί
  • Read chapter 34 on μι verbs – Indicative of δίδωμι (in 2 weeks)
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able
  • Make plans to acquire the required texts for the 2nd half of the semester

Overview of resources for 4th semester

Required

Recommended

  • A good NT Lexicon, preferably BAGD. If you cannot afford BAGD, you can ask the διδάσκαλος concerning other alternatives. There are online lexical resources you can use, but you really should have a hard copy lexicon if at all possible. These are used copies of the 2nd edition for much less money.
  • Morphology of Biblical Greek – (MBG) is a compendium of the paradigms of Greek grammar which when used will help you to recognize the patterns in what is a very regular language.

The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.