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Review of Adjectival Participles

  • Distinguished from adverbial participles by the presence of the article, since adverbial participles are almost always anarthrous, while adjectival participles is usually articular
    • Also the keywords we have discussed, e.g. “while” “after” “since” “because” etc. apply only to adverbial particples.
  • Since participles are verbal adjectives, they can do whatever adjectives can do, e.g. modify nouns or pronouns, or function substantivally
  • Hence Adjectival Partiples are classified as either Attibutive or Substantival
    • Attributive: (29.5,7)
      • modifies a noun or pronoun
      • agrees with what what it modifies in case, number and gender
      • it stands in the attributive position, i.e. it is preceded by the article
      • functions like an adjective
      • can often tranlated with “-ing”, e.g. The man teaching the people…
    • Substantival: (29.5,8)
      • functions as a noun, hence there will be no noun for it to modify, e.g. ὁ ἀναγινώσκων – “The reader…”
      • case is determined by its function in the sentence
      • gender and number are determined by who or what the participle represents
      • behaves like a noun, e.g. can have the article
      • e.g. οἱ πιστεύοντες ἐκήρυσσον τὸ εὐαγγέλιον – “The believers were preaching the gospel”
      • e.g. προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς (Matthew 5.44) – "Pray for those persecuting you "
    • Identifying an adjectival participle as either attributive or substantival is determined mainly by context, e.g. does the participle have a word to modify? If not, it must be substantival. (29.11)
  • Since adjectival participles highlight the adjectival rather than the verbal elements of verbal adjectives, aspect is much less significant than with adverbial participles
  • Review of the grammar of adjectives (Chapter 9)
  • Translation of Adjectival Participles (29.9)
    • Attempting to translate word for word will often not work — you must determine what the Greek says, by actually thinking in Greek, and then say the same thing in English
    • The keywords for translation of adverbial participles, “while,” “after,” and “since”, “because,” and the others obviously do not apply in the translation of adjectival participles
    • Since the adjectival use of the participle focuses more on its adjectival elements, and less on its verbal elements, aspect is less important than in the adverbial usage for the attributive, and even less so for the substantival. It’s still there, but not as prominent. (29.10)
    • The use of participles in Greek is very often idiomatic, i.e. “peculiar to a people or to a district, community, or class”
    • Begin with “-ing” which will usually work for the attributive use
      • e.g. Attributive: ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἄνθρωπος – “the coming man”
    • For Substantival, you will often need to employ a relative phrase like “the one who is
      • e.g. Substantival: ὁ καταβαίνων – “the one who is coming down”
      • but not always, e.g. ὁ παρακαλῶν – “the encouraging one” or simply “the encourager”
    • aspect can be more clearly indicated by using a relative phrase in translation. See 29.14
    • Work through examples examples in 29.9
    • 7 questions to ask a particple – list and chart (p.273)

Perfect Participles

  • This completes the Greek participle forms: Present, Aorist and Perfect
  • The Perfect participle, acts like a perfect
    • indicates completed action, the results of which continue into the present
    • as seen from the speaker’s perspective, not the reader’s
  • Formation
    • Perfect Active: Reduplication + Perfect Tense Stem + Tense Formative κ + Participle Morpheme οτ/υια + Case Endings (30.5-6)
      • 3-1-3 Adjectival pattern
      • Vocalic reduplication is maintained, since it does not indicate time, like the temporal augment in the Aorist and Imperfect tenses
      • 2nd Perfects (30.17) tense formative is ‘α’ instead of ‘κ’
        • Learn with principal parts to recognize 2nd Perfects which are rare
    • Perfect Middle/Passive: Reduplication + Perfect Tense Stem + Participle Morpheme μενο/η + Case Endings (30.7-8)
      • 2-1-2 Adjectival pattern
      • no Tense Formative and no Connecting vowel, as in the Perfect Indicative Middle/Passive
      • accent is consistently paroxytone (acute on the penult)
  • Translation
    • “having…” of “after having…” depending on context
  • Know the “first 6” and be able to recognize all the forms (30.6, 30.8)
  • Easily identified by? The reduplication

Master Participle Chart (BBG p.355)

Morpheme Tense/Voice Case Endings
ντ all Active and Aorist Passive 3-1-3
οτ Perfect Active 3-1-3
μενο/η all Middle/Passive and all Middle 2-1-2
Tense and Voice Redup. Tense
Stem
Tense Form. or
Conn. Vowel
Morpheme Nom. Plural Six Memory Forms
 
Present Active Present ο ντ / ουσα λέγοντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
Present Middle/Passive Present ο μενο / η λεγόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
1st Aorist Active Aorist
Active
σα ντ / σα λύσαντες σας, σασα, σαν
σαντος, σασης, σαντος
1st Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
σα μενο / η λυσάμενοι σαμενος, σαμενη, σαμενον
σαμενου, σαμενης, σαμενου
1st Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
θε ντ λυθέντες θεις, θεισα, θεν
θεντος, θεισης, θεντος
2nd Aorist Active Aorist
Active
ο ντ βαλόντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
2nd Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
ο μενο / η γενόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
2nd Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
ε ντ γραφέντες εις, εισα, εν
εντος, εισης, εντος
Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κ οτ λελυκότες κως, κυια, κος
κοτος, κυιας, κοτος
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Midddle/Passive μενο / η λελυμένοι μενος, μενη, μενον
μενου, μενης, μενου

Genitive Absolutes (30.9-13)

  • By definition, an ‘absolute’ (Lat. absolutus = ‘loosed’ or ‘separated’) has no direct grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence, i.e. the genitive absolute participial phrase does not directly modify any word in the sentence
    • In English, we have a similar construction, the ‘nominative absolute’ e.g. “Lord willing, we will arrive at noon.”
  • It consists of a noun or pronoun, and participle in the genitive
    • the participle in a genitive absolute is always anarthrous
    • the participle may have additional modifiers, like any other participial phrase, e.g. a direct object, adverbs, prepositional phrases et al.
    • occasionally the subject of the participial action is implicit in the participle, i.e. there is no noun or pronoun
  • Genitive absolutes tend to occur at the beginning of sentences.
  • most commonly uses the present participle to indicate an action or condition concurrent with that of the main verb
  • αὐτοῦ (pronoun) often functions as subject in genitive absolute
  • Translation (30.11)
    • As with many participial phrases in Greek, the genitive absolute is often idiomatic — you must therefore think in Greek, and then render into English
    • Most genitive absolutes should be understood temporally (30.12)
    • The time element of the participle is relative to the main verb
    • e.g. Present: αὐτοῦ ἐρχομένου – “(he) while coming”
    • e.g. Aorist: αὐτοῦ ἐλθόντος – “(he) after coming”
    • e.g. Perfect: αὐτοῦ λελυκότος – “(he) having loosed”
    • sometimes it is best to translate with a finite verb, especially when the genitive absolute has a subject
  • Work through 30.13

Periphrastics (30.14-15)

  • from περί + φράσις = “round about” i.e. “a round about” way of saying something
  • formed with verb to be (e.g. ειμί) + participle
  • never occurs in the Aorist. Why not?
  • rare instance in Greek where a “helping verb” is used, which is common in English, e.g. “will eat” for future, “was hit” for passive, etc.
  • In ancient Greek it emphasized continuous aspect, in κοινή less so, but still can depending on context
  • In κοινή, commonly used for 3rd person Plural, Perfect Middle/Passive
  • commonly used in 3rd person plural, Perfect Middle/Passive
  • Examples
    • Present: Col 1.6 καθὼς καὶ ἐν παντὶ τῷ κόσμῳ ἐστὶν καρποφορούμενον “Just as in all the world it is bearing fruit
    • Imperfect: Matthew 7.29 ἦν γὰρ διδάσκων αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐξουσίαν ἔχων “For he was teaching them as one having authority”
    • Perfect: Ephesians. 2.8 – Τῇ γὰρ χάριτί ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι διὰ πίστεως· καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν, θεοῦ τὸ δῶρον· “For by grace you are saved through faith; and this is not of you, it is the gift of God”

Exegetical Insight

Ephesians. 2.8 – Τῇ γὰρ χάριτί ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι διὰ πίστεως· καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν, θεοῦ τὸ δῶρον·

Other Translations of Adverbial Participles

Review notes for chapter 27

  • Temporal – “while…” “after…”
  • Causal – “because…” “since”
  • Instrumental (Means) – “by…” e.g 1 Cor. 4.12 καὶ κοπιῶμεν ἐργαζόμενοι ταῖς ἰδίαις χερσίν “we toil by working with our hands”
  • Concessive – “though…” e.g. Mark 8.18 ὀφθαλμοὺς ἔχοντες οὐ βλέπετε
    καὶ ὦτα ἔχοντες οὐκ ἀκούετε “having eyes (even though you have eyes ), you do not see, and having ears (even though you have ears), you do not hear”
  • Manner – tells “how” or “in what way” e.g. Matthew 19.22 ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ νεανίσκος τὸν λόγον ἀπῆλθεν λυπούμενος “and after hearing the word, the young man went away grieving..”
  • Purpose (Telic) – “in order to” e.g Luke 10.25 Καὶ ἰδοὺ νομικός τις ἀνέστη ἐκπειράζων αὐτὸν “And behold a certain lawyer stoop up in order to test him”
  • As regular verb, e.g. Matthew 4.4 ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν· γέγραπται· οὐκ ἐπ᾿ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος – literally, “and after answering, he said…” can be translated “and he answered, and said…”

New Vocabulary

  • πρεσβύτερος

Assignments

  • Weekly Memorization: Ephesians 2.8 Τῇ γὰρ χάριτί ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι διὰ πίστεως· καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν, θεοῦ τὸ δῶρον·
  • Complete workbook exercise 30
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 30 – Perfect Participles and Genitive Absolutes
  • Prepare for mid-term exam in 2 weeks
    • Know the Master Participle Chart including the six first forms (now complete)
    • Review Summary of Greek participle on p.282-283
    • All vocabulary
    • Translation from Workbook exercises
    • Any of the memory passages, including Ephesians 2.8
    • Study chapters 26-30 on Participles
    • Begin workbook review #6 – use to study for Exam in 2 weeks.
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able

The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.