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Review of Aorist Adverbial Participles

  • Indicates Undefined or Simple aspect
    • Participles have no absolute time element, since they are not Indicative.
    • Participles do have relative time, i.e. their action is relative to the action of the main verb (28.17)
      • Participles are syntactical servants, and as such they submit to the tense of the main verb
      • Aorist Participle is called “aorist” because it is built on the Aorist Tense stem, not because of any time element
    • Hence, in translation, Aspect must be the first and foremost consideration
    • Whereas Present participle indicates action that is occurring at the time of the main verb
    • Aorist participle indicates an action that has simply occurred (simple aspect) at the time of the action of the main verb. Simple aspect tells you nothing else except that the action has occurred
    • To help in understanding this, review 28.18
  • Translation
    • It is difficult to carry the aspect of the Aorist participle into English using -ing
    • Translate with “after…” e.g. “after he studied, he took the test” (See 28.18)
    • The meaning of the Aorist adverbial participle is always determined by its relationship to the main verb in context.
  • Formation – Built upon the (unaugmented) Aorist tense stem
    • the tense stem is unaugmented, since participles do not have absolute time, hence there can be no temporal augment (28.6)
    • There can be confusion between an unaugmented Aorist Tense Stem, and the Present Tense Stem when the augment is a lengthened vowel, or with compound verbs (28.6) The remedy is to know the verbal roots.
  • 1st Aorist: Tense stem + Tense Formative σα + Participle morpheme + Case endings (28.5)
    • 1st Aorist Active paradigm (28.7)
      • uses ντ as Participle morpheme
      • 3-1-3 Adjective pattern
      • like πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν
    • 1st Aorist Middle paradigm (28.9)
      • uses μενο/η as Participle morpheme
      • 2-1-2 Adjective pattern
    • 1st Aorist Passive paradigm (28.10)
      • Tense Formative θη which shortens to θε, combined with participle morpheme => θεντ
      • uses ντ as Participle morpheme
      • In the feminine the participle morpheme ντ is replaced by ισα
      • 3-1-3 Adjective Pattern
      • Nominative Masculine Singular: ντ drops out because of the ς, compensatory lengthening of the ε (to compensate for loss of ντ) *θε + ντ + ς => θες => θεις
  • 2nd Aorist: Tense stem + Connecting Vowel + Participle morpheme + Case endings (28.11)
    • 2nd Aorist Active paradigm (28.12)
      • uses ντ as Participle morpheme
      • 3-1-3 Adjective Pattern
      • looks like Present Active Particple, except for the stem, e.g. βάλλοντες (Present) cf. βάλοντες (Aorist)
    • 2nd Aorist Middle paradigm (28.13)
      • uses μενο/η as Participle morpheme
      • 2-1-2 Adjective pattern
      • looks like Present Middle/Passive Particple, except for the stem.
    • 2nd Aorist Passive paradigm (28.14)
      • uses ντ as Participle morpheme
      • In the feminine the participle morpheme ντ is replaced by ισα
      • 3-1-3 Adjective Pattern
      • Nominative Masculine Singular: ντ drops out because of the ς, compensatory lengthening of the ε (to compensate for loss of ντ) *ε + ντ + ς => ες => εις
      • occurs relatively rarely

Master Participle Chart (BBG p.355)

Morpheme Tense/Voice Case Endings
ντ all Active and Aorist Passive 3-1-3
οτ Perfect Active 3-1-3
μενο/η all Middle/Passive and all Middle 2-1-2
Tense and Voice Redup. Tense
Stem
Tense Form. or
Conn. Vowel
Morpheme Nom. Plural Six Memory Forms
 
Present Active Present ο ντ / ουσα λέγοντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
Present Middle/Passive Present ο μενο / η λεγόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
1st Aorist Active Aorist
Active
σα ντ / σα λύσαντες σας, σασα, σαν
σαντος, σασης, σαντος
1st Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
σα μενο / η λυσάμενοι σαμενος, σαμενη, σαμενον
σαμενου, σαμενης, σαμενου
1st Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
θε ντ λυθέντες θεις, θεισα, θεν
θεντος, θεισης, θεντος
2nd Aorist Active Aorist
Active
ο ντ βαλόντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
2nd Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
ο μενο / η γενόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
2nd Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
ε ντ γραφέντες εις, εισα, εν
εντος, εισης, εντος
Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κ οτ λελυκότες κως, κυια, κος
κοτος, κυιας, κοτος
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Midddle/Passive μενο / η λελυμένοι μενος, μενη, μενον
μενου, μενης, μενου

Review of General Rules

  • Present or Aorist, the feminine participles always use 1st declension endings
  • Present or Aorist, active participles are 3rd declension in masculine and neuter
  • Present middle and passive, and Aorist middle particples are 2nd declension in masculine and neuter
  • Aorist passive participles are 3rd declension in masculine and neuter
  • Knowing your verbal root is critical for distinguishing Present Active and Middle from 2nd Aorist Active and Middle – Review and work through 28.16
  • Note Rules of Accent in paradigms

Review and applcation of Adjectival grammar

  • See chapter 9
  • Adjectives can be either:
    • Attributive – e.g. “The gracious man spoke kindly” – agrees with what it modifies in Case, Gender and Number
    • Substantive – e.g. “The good, the bad and the ugly” – Case is determined by function in the sentence, e.g. Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object.
    • Predicate – e.g “The man was faithful” – asserts something about the subject, and agrees with it

Adjectival Participles

  • Distinguished from adverbial participles by the presence of the article, since adverbial participles are almost always anarthrous, while adjectival participles is usually articular
    • Also the keywords we have discussed, e.g. “while” “after” “since” “because” etc. apply only to adverbial particples.
  • Since participles are verbal adjectives, they can do whatever adjectives can do, e.g. modify nouns or pronouns, or function substantivally
  • Hence Adjectival Partiples are classified as either Attibutive or Substantival
    • Attributive: (29.5,7)
      • modifies a noun or pronoun
      • agrees with what what it modifies in case, number and gender
      • it stands in the attributive position, i.e. it is preceded by the article
      • functions like an adjective
      • can often tranlated with “-ing”, e.g. The man teaching the people…
    • Substantival: (29.5,8)
      • functions as a noun, hence there will be no noun for it to modify, e.g. ὁ ἀναγινώσκων – “The reader…”
      • case is determined by its function in the sentence
      • gender and number are determined by who or what the participle represents
      • behaves like a noun, e.g. can have the article
      • e.g. οἱ πιστεύοντες ἐκήρυσσον τὸ εὐαγγέλιον – “The believers were preaching the gospel”
      • e.g. προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς (Matthew 5.44) – "Pray for those persecuting you "
    • Identifying an adjectival participle as either attributive or substantival is determined mainly by context, e.g. does the participle have a word to modify? If not, it must be substantival. (29.11)
  • Since adjectival participles highlight the adjectival rather than the verbal elements of verbal adjectives, aspect is much less significant than with adverbial participles
  • Review of the grammar of adjectives (Chapter 9)
  • Translation of Adjectival Participles (29.9)
    • Attempting to translate word for word will often not work — you must determine what the Greek says, by actually thinking in Greek, and then say the same thing in English
    • The keywords for translation of adverbial participles, “while,” “after,” and “since”, “because,” and the others obviously do not apply in the translation of adjectival participles
    • Since the adjectival use of the participle focuses more on its adjectival elements, and less on its verbal elements, aspect is less important than in the adverbial usage for the attributive, and even less so for the substantival. It’s still there, but not as prominent. (29.10)
    • The use of participles in Greek is very often idiomatic, i.e. “peculiar to a people or to a district, community, or class”
    • Begin with “-ing” which will usually work for the attributive use
      • e.g. Attributive: ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἄνθρωπος – “the coming man”
    • For Substantival, you will often need to employ a relative phrase like “the one who is
      • e.g. Substantival: ὁ καταβαίνων – “the one who is coming down”
      • but not always, e.g. ὁ παρακαλῶν – “the encouraging one” or simply “the encourager”
    • aspect can be more clearly indicated by using a relative phrase in translation. See 29.14
    • Work through examples examples in 29.9
    • 7 questions to ask a particple – list and chart (p.273)

Master Participle Chart (BBG p.355)

Morpheme Tense/Voice Case Endings
ντ all Active and Aorist Passive 3-1-3
οτ Perfect Active 3-1-3
μενο/η all Middle/Passive and all Middle 2-1-2
Tense and Voice Redup. Tense
Stem
Tense Form. or
Conn. Vowel
Morpheme Nom. Plural Six Memory Forms
 
Present Active Present ο ντ / ουσα λέγοντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
Present Middle/Passive Present ο μενο / η λεγόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
1st Aorist Active Aorist
Active
σα ντ / σα λύσαντες σας, σασα, σαν
σαντος, σασης, σαντος
1st Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
σα μενο / η λυσάμενοι σαμενος, σαμενη, σαμενον
σαμενου, σαμενης, σαμενου
1st Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
θε ντ λυθέντες θεις, θεισα, θεν
θεντος, θεισης, θεντος
2nd Aorist Active Aorist
Active
ο ντ βαλόντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
2nd Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
ο μενο / η γενόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
2nd Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
ε ντ γραφέντες εις, εισα, εν
εντος, εισης, εντος
Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κ οτ λελυκότες κως, κυια, κος
κοτος, κυιας, κοτος
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Midddle/Passive μενο / η λελυμένοι μενος, μενη, μενον
μενου, μενης, μενου

New Vocabulary

  • δέχομαι = I take, receive
    • deponent in all forms
  • δοκέω = I think, or I seem
    • Docetism, the heresy which asserts that Christ only seemed to be human
    • δόξα – what you think about someone, or how he seems to be, i.e. his reputation = glory
    • ὀρθοδοξία – orthodoxy (thinking straight)
  • ἐσθίω, φάγομαι, ἔφαγον – 2 verbal roots
    • sarcophagus = σάρξ + φάγος = “flesh eater”
  • φέρω, οἴσω, ἤνεγκα, ἐνηνοχα, —, ἠνέχθην – 3 roots
    • Christopher – Χριστοφόρος = “Christ-bearer”
    • Latin fero is derived from φέρω
      • Conifer = bearing cones
      • Aquifer = holding water
      • Lucifer = Light-bearer
      • Others?

Exegetical Insight – Romans 1.1-4

Παῦλος δοῦλος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ, κλητὸς ἀπόστολος ἀφωρισμένος εἰς εὐαγγέλιον θεοῦ,
ὃ προεπηγγείλατο διὰ τῶν προφητῶν αὐτοῦ ἐν γραφαῖς ἁγίαις
περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ τοῦ γενομένου ἐκ σπέρματος Δαυὶδ κατὰ σάρκα,
τοῦ ὁρισθέντος υἱοῦ θεοῦ ἐν δυνάμει κατὰ πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης ἐξ ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν…

  • γενομένου – 2 aor mid part masc sing gen γίνομαι “being born”
  • ὁρισθέντος – aor pass part masc sing gen ὁρίζω “being designated”

Memory Passage – Matthew 5.4

μακάριοι οἱ πενθοῦντες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται.

  • πενθοῦντες – masc plur nom pres act part πενθέω “mourning”
  • παρακληθήσονται – 3 plur fut pass indic παρακαλέω (παρά, καλέω) “they will be comforted”

Assignments

  • Complete workbook exercise 29
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 29 – Adjectival Participles
    • Know the Master Participle Chart
    • All vocabulary
    • Translation from Workbook exercises
    • Any of the memory passages, including Matthew 5.4
  • Study chapter 30 on Perfect Participles and Genitive Absolutes
  • Begin workbook exercise 30 on the same
  • Review all 6 principal parts for all verbs to date, also check Lexical Aids, Appendix IV
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able

The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.