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Review of Present Adverbial Participles

Master Case Ending Chart (BBG Appendix, ~ p.345)

First and Second Declension Third Declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masc / Fem Neuter
           
Nom Sg ς - ν ς / - -
Gen Sg υ ς υ ος ος
Dat Sg ι ι ι ι ι
Acc Sg ν ν ν α / ν -
           
Nom Pl ι ι α ες α
Gen Pl ων ων ων ων ων
Dat Pl ις ις ις σι(ν) σι(ν)
Acc Pl υς ς α ας α

Master Participle Chart (BBG p.355)

Morpheme Tense/Voice Case Endings
ντ all Active and Aorist Passive 3-1-3
οτ Perfect Active 3-1-3
μενο/η all Middle/Passive and all Middle 2-1-2
Tense and Voice Redup. Tense
Stem
Tense Form. or
Conn. Vowel
Morpheme Nom. Plural Six Memory Forms
 
Present Active Present ο ντ / ουσα λέγοντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
Present Middle/Passive Present ο μενο / η λεγόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
1st Aorist Active Aorist
Active
σα ντ / σα λύσαντες σας, σασα, σαν
σαντος, σασης, σαντος
1st Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
σα μενο / η λυσάμενοι σαμενος, σαμενη, σαμενον
σαμενου, σαμενης, σαμενου
1st Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
θε ντ λυθέντες θεις, θεισα, θεν
θεντος, θεισης, θεντος
2nd Aorist Active Aorist
Active
ο ντ βαλόντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
2nd Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
ο μενο / η γενόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
2nd Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
ε ντ γραφέντες εις, εισα, εν
εντος, εισης, εντος
Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κ οτ λελυκότες κως, κυια, κος
κοτος, κυιας, κοτος
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Midddle/Passive μενο / η λελυμένοι μενος, μενη, μενον
μενου, μενης, μενου
  • Present Participle indicates Continuous Aspect
    • Participles have no absolute time element, since they are not Indicative.
    • Participles do have relative time, in that they derive time from the main verb. (27.11-19)
      • Participles are syntactical servants, and as such they submit to the tense of the main verb
    • Hence, in translation, Aspect must be the first and foremost consideration
    • Present Participle is called “present” because it is built on the Present Tense stem, not because of any time element
  • Review: There are 2 types of participles, adverbial and adjectival
  • Adverbial Particples say something about the action of the main verb
    • Therefore you normally translate them with an adverbial clause
      • Temporal – e.g. “while he was walking…”
        • Translated with English words ‘while’ or ‘after’
        • Shows ‘when’ something happened.
        • Mark 9:5 ‘All the crowd, seeing Him, were amazed.’ (“When all the crowd saw Him, they were amazed.”)
      • Causal – e.g. “because he was preoccupied…” or “since I am leaving…”
        • Indicates the Cause or Reason
        • Answers the question “Why?”
        • Translated by ‘because’ (or ‘since’)
        • John 4:6 “Jesus, being wearied, sat.” (‘Because Jesus was wearied, He sat.’)
  • Agreement – even adverbial participles must agree with a noun or pronoun in Case, Gender and Number
    • The the noun or pronoun may be explicitly stated, but it also may be implicit in the verb
    • The noun or pronoun doing or receiving the action (subject), though technically participles do not have subjects (27.21) but they depend upon the subject of the main verb
  • Voice of the Participle
    • if active, the noun or pronoun with which the participle agrees does the action, e.g. “while reading the book…”
    • if passive, the noun or pronoun with which the participle agrees receives the action, e.g. “being filled with joy…” (use the English word “being” when translation passive participles)
    • consider voice in your translation, after you have determined aspect
  • No Article – Adverbial Participles are always anarthrous (no article) – this is often helpful is determining if a participle is being used adverbially or adjectivally
  • Formation of Present Participle (27.4):
    • Present Tense Stem + Connecting vowel + Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
      • (Review Master Case Ending chart)
      • e.g. πιστευ + ο + ντ + ες = πιστεύοντες
    • Participle Morphemes (27.4)
      • ντ – Active masculine and neuter, is 3rd declension
      • ουσα – Present Feminine
      • μενο/η – Middle/Passive
      • οτ – Perfect (Chapter 30)
    • learn the Six Forms to help in learning all Particple Paradigms (27.6)
      • Note how we arrive at Nominative Singular Masculine and Neuter forms.
    • Paradigm of Present Active Participle (27.5-10, p.367)
      • like 3-1-3 ending adjective
      • very similiar to πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν (p.349)
      • Contract Verb forms are regular (27.8)
      • Paradigm of εἰμί follows this pattern
      • What important English word(s) are derived from this participle?
        • Ontology, ontological.
        • Where would Anselm be without this?
    • Paradigm of Present Middle/Passive Particple (27.11-12)
      • same as any 2-1-2 ending adjective, once you know the particple morpheme
  • Translation of Participles: 1) Discover Aspect, 2) then Voice, 3) then Meaning (27.13-14)
    • Adverbial Clauses (see Exegesis section at end of chapter 27)
      • Temporal – e.g. “while he was walking…”
        • Translated with English words ‘while’ (present) or ‘after’ (aorist)
        • Shows ‘when’ something happened.
        • Answers the question “When?”
        • Acts 1.4 “While staying with them, he charged them”
        • Matt 4.2 “After fasting…he was hungry” (Aorist)
      • Causal – e.g. “because he was preoccupied…” or “since I am leaving…”
        • Indicates the Cause or Reason
        • Answers the question “Why?”
        • Translated by ‘because’ (or ‘since’)
        • John 4:6 “Jesus, being wearied, sat.” (‘Because Jesus was wearied, He sat.’)
        • Acts 16.34 “He was filled with joy…having believed…” (…because he believed.)
      • Manner – e.g. “smiling he recounted the story…”
        • Answers the question ‘In what way?’ or ‘How?’
        • Matt. 19.22 “…he went away grieving”
      • Instrumental (Means) – e.g. “giving good words, he encouraged the church”
        • Answers the question “With what?” or “How?”
        • Translated with ‘by’ or ‘by means of’
        • 1 Cor. 4.12 – “We toil by working with our own hands”
        • Matt. 27:4 – “I have sinned by betraying innocent blood.”
      • Purpose (Telic)
        • Indicates the purpose of the action of the finite verb
        • Answers the questions ‘Why?’
        • Should be translated with the English ‘infinitive’ or ‘with the purpose of’ or ‘in order to’. A simple ‘-ing’ translation misses the point.
        • A future adverbial participles always belong here.)
        • Luke 10:25 “A certain lawyer stood up testing Him (in order to test Him), saying, ‘Teacher, what must I do to gain eternal life?’”
      • Concessive
        • Indicates that the action of the main verb is true in spite of the state or action of the participle.
        • Usually translated ‘although’
        • Romans 1:21 “although they knew God, they did not glorify (honor) Him as God.”
        • 1 Peter 1:8 “whom having not seen (although you have not seen Him), you love”
    • with Passive Voice, you will usually use “being” in translation, e.g. “A reed, being shaken by the wind…” (Matt. 11.7)

Aorist Adverbial Participles

  • Indicates Undefined or Simple aspect
    • Participles have no absolute time element, since they are not Indicative.
    • Participles do have relative time, i.e. their action is relative to the action of the main verb (28.17)
      • Participles are syntactical servants, and as such they submit to the tense of the main verb
      • Aorist Participle is called “aorist” because it is built on the Aorist Tense stem, not because of any time element
    • Hence, in translation, Aspect must be the first and foremost consideration
    • Whereas Present participle indicates action that is occurring at the time of the main verb
    • Aorist participle indicates an action that has simply occurred (simple aspect) at the time of the action of the main verb. Simple aspect tells you nothing else except that the action has occurred
    • To help in understanding this, review 28.18
  • Translation
    • It is difficult to carry the aspect of the Aorist participle into English using -ing
    • Translate with “after…” e.g. “after he studied, he took the test” (See 28.18)
    • The meaning of the Aorist adverbial participle is always determined by its relationship to the main verb in context.
  • Formation – Built upon the (unaugmented) Aorist tense stem
    • the tense stem is unaugmented, since participles do not have absolute time, hence there can be no temporal augment (28.6)
    • There can be confusion between an unaugmented Aorist Tense Stem, and the Present Tense Stem when the augment is a lengthened vowel, or with compound verbs (28.6) The remedy is to know the verbal roots.
  • 1st Aorist: Tense stem + Tense Formative σα + Participle morpheme + Case endings (28.5)
    • 1st Aorist Active paradigm (28.7)
      • uses ντ as Participle morpheme
      • 3-1-3 Adjective pattern
      • like πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν
    • 1st Aorist Middle paradigm (28.9)
      • uses μενο/η as Participle morpheme
      • 2-1-2 Adjective pattern
    • 1st Aorist Passive paradigm (28.10)
      • Tense Formative θη which shortens to θε, combined with participle morpheme => θεντ
      • uses ντ as Participle morpheme
      • In the feminine the participle morpheme ντ is replaced by ισα
      • 3-1-3 Adjective Pattern
      • Nominative Masculine Singular: ντ drops out because of the ς, compensatory lengthening of the ε (to compensate for loss of ντ) *θε + ντ + ς => θες => θεις
  • 2nd Aorist: Tense stem + Connecting Vowel + Participle morpheme + Case endings (28.11)
    • 2nd Aorist Active paradigm (28.12)
      • uses ντ as Participle morpheme
      • 3-1-3 Adjective Pattern
      • looks like Present Active Particple, except for the stem, e.g. βάλλοντες (Present) cf. βάλοντες (Aorist)
    • 2nd Aorist Middle paradigm (28.13)
      • uses μενο/η as Participle morpheme
      • 2-1-2 Adjective pattern
      • looks like Present Middle/Passive Particple, except for the stem.
    • 2nd Aorist Passive paradigm (28.14)
      • uses ντ as Participle morpheme
      • In the feminine the participle morpheme ντ is replaced by ισα
      • 3-1-3 Adjective Pattern
      • Nominative Masculine Singular: ντ drops out because of the ς, compensatory lengthening of the ε (to compensate for loss of ντ) *ε + ντ + ς => ες => εις
      • occurs relatively rarely

Participles in General

  • Present or Aorist, the feminine participles always use 1st declension endings
  • Present or Aorist, active participles are 3rd declension in masculine and neuter
  • Present middle and passive, and Aorist middle particples are 2nd declension in masculine and neuter
  • Aorist passive participles are 3rd declension in masculine and neuter
  • Knowing your verbal root is critical for distinguishing Present Active and Middle from 2nd Aorist Active and Middle – Review and work through 28.16
  • Note Rules of Accent in paradigms

The Future Particple (28.19)

  • describes what is purposed, intended or expected in the future
  • occurs only 12 times in NT
  • form are obvious

Master Participle Chart (BBG p.355)

Morpheme Tense/Voice Case Endings
ντ all Active and Aorist Passive 3-1-3
οτ Perfect Active 3-1-3
μενο/η all Middle/Passive and all Middle 2-1-2
Tense and Voice Redup. Tense
Stem
Tense Form. or
Conn. Vowel
Morpheme Nom. Plural Six Memory Forms
 
Present Active Present ο ντ / ουσα λέγοντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
Present Middle/Passive Present ο μενο / η λεγόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
1st Aorist Active Aorist
Active
σα ντ / σα λύσαντες σας, σασα, σαν
σαντος, σασης, σαντος
1st Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
σα μενο / η λυσάμενοι σαμενος, σαμενη, σαμενον
σαμενου, σαμενης, σαμενου
1st Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
θε ντ λυθέντες θεις, θεισα, θεν
θεντος, θεισης, θεντος
2nd Aorist Active Aorist
Active
ο ντ βαλόντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
2nd Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
ο μενο / η γενόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
2nd Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
ε ντ γραφέντες εις, εισα, εν
εντος, εισης, εντος
Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κ οτ λελυκότες κως, κυια, κος
κοτος, κυιας, κοτος
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Midddle/Passive μενο / η λελυμένοι μενος, μενη, μενον
μενου, μενης, μενου

New Vocabulary

  • γραμματεύς – note the -ευς suffix which indicates the responsible person (See Lexical Aids). cf. βασιλεία => βασιλεύς

Assignments

  • Complete workbook exercise 28
  • Memorization: Ephesians 5.20 – εὐχαριστοῦντες πάντοτε ὑπὲρ πάντων ἐν ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρί.
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 28 – Aorist Adverbial Participles
    • Know the Master Participle Chart to date
    • All vocabulary
    • Translation from Workbook exercises
    • Memory passage
  • Study chapter 29 on Adjectival Participles
  • Begin workbook exercise 29 on the same
  • Review all 6 principal parts for all verbs to date, also check Lexical Aids, Appendix IV
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able

The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.