BBG 23: 1st Aorist « Previous  •  Next » BBG 25: Perfect Indicative

χαῖρετε μαθηταί

Review and Addenda

Review First Aorist

  • 1st Aorist is the regular form
    • Most Greek verbs follow this pattern
      • The 2nd Aorist alters the Tense Stem from the Present (usually to Verbal Root)
      • The 1st Aorist does not alter the Present Tense Stem, but instead uses the Tense Formative σα
      • 1st Aorist Tense Stem is usually identical to Present Tense Stem
    • There is no difference in meaning between the 1st and 2nd Aorist — Simple Past
    • Aspect of the Aorist is Undefined
    • All Aorists have the Augment ε, and therefore all use Secondary Endings
  • Formation of the 1st Aorist Active (23.4-5, 23.17-18)
    Augment + First Aorist Tense Stem + Tense Formative + Secondary personal endings
    • Augment is ε, just as in he Imperfect and 2nd Aorist
    • 1st Aorist Tense Stem (normally the same as the Present Tense Stem, and the Verbal Root)
    • Tense Formative σα (Note that there are no connecting vowels since Tense Formative ends with a vowel)
      • Easy to identify in the Active – alters only in 3rd person singular, where the α changes to ε
      • Aorist has distinct forms for the Middle and Passive, like the Future tense – Middle is formed the same way, except using the Secondary Middle/Passive endings
      • Usual situation in the 2nd person middle: intervocalic sigma drops out and α + ο = ω (23.18)
      • when Tense Formative is preceded by a stop, square of stops applies, including -ιζω and -αζω verbs (chart on 23.11)
      • Contract verbs lengthen their stem vowels in before the Tense Formative, just as in the Future (23.10)
      • Liquid Stems use α for Tense Formative, instead of σα (23.13-14)
    • Secondary Endings – importance of memorizing the actual endings, e.g. if you have been then you already know these endings

The Square of Stops (BBG 10.17-20)

Type Voiceless Voiced Aspirate Spirant Double (With Sigma)
Labials π β φ + σ => ψ
Velars(Palatals) κ γ χ + σ => ξ
Dentals τ δ θ + σ => σσ => σ

Master Verb Ending Chart (BBG p.352)

Voice Primary
  λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
  λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
  λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
  λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
  λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
  λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
Middle & Passive
  λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
  λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
  λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
  λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
  λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
  λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)

Master Indicative Verb Chart (BBG p.354)

Verb Tense Augment/
1st Person
Present Active Present ο/ε Primary Active λύω
Present Middle/Passive Present ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λύομαι
Imperfect Active ε Present ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλυον
Imperfect Middle/Passive ε Present ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυόμην
Future Active Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Active λύσω
Liquid Future Active Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Active μενῶ
Future Middle Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive πορεύομαι
Liquid Future Middle Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive μενοῦμαι
1st Future Passive Aorist Passive θησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λυθήσομαι
2nd Future Passive Aorist Passive ησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive ἀποσταλήσομαι
1st Aorist Active ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Active ἔλυσα
1st Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυσάμην
1st Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive θη Secondary Active ἐλύθην
Liquid Aorist Active ε Aorist Active α Secondary Active ἔμεινα
2nd Aorist Active ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλαβον
2nd Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐγενόμην
2nd Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive η Secondary Active ἐγράφην
1st Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κα Primary Active λέκυκα
2nd Perfect Active λε Perfect Active α Primary Active γέγονα
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Passive Primary Middle/Passive λέκυμαι
  • Recognizing Liquid Aorists (23.13-15)
    • final stem consonant is a liquid ( μ ν λ ρ )
    • Tense Formative is α, not σα
    • Tense stem is sometimes modified, e.g. μένω
    • Liquid Tenses only occur in Future and Aorist
    • See list of Liquid Verbs on p.381
  • Sometimes you will find 2nd Aorist stems with 1st Aorist endings – Koine Greek was in the process of standardization (23.12)
  • Aorist has distinct form for the Middle voice and the Passive voice, as does the Future
  • You can recognize an Aorist deponent, because its lexical form (3rd Principal Part) will end with -μην
  • Translation of Aorists (23.3) – like the simple English past tense, e.g. ‘I studied’.
  • Exegetical Insight – Aorist is sometimes punctiliar, when context so indicates
  • See Smyth on 1st Aorist

Aorist and Future Passives

  • In English we form past and future passives by using helping verbs, e.g. ‘you were taken’ and ‘you will be taken’ respectively
    • See Appendix on p. 351 (3rd edition)
    • This is how we will translate the Aorist and Future passives
  • Both are built on the 6th Principal Part (aka Tense Form)
    • e.g. λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, -, -, ἐλύθην
    • We will learn the 4th and 5th Principal Parts (Perfect Active, Perfect Middle/Passive) next chapter
  • Formation of Aorist Passive: Augment + Aorist Passive tense stem + Tense formative (θη or η) + Secondary active personal endings
    • Augment ε
      • Indicates Past Time
      • Always goes with Secondary Endings
    • Aorist Passive Tense Stem
      • Usually the same as the Present Tense Stem and Verbal Root, in 1st Aorist,
      • It often varies in the 2nd Aorist (the paradigmatic γράφω, γράψω, ἐγράφην does not)
      • 2nd Aorist Passives are rare in the New Testament
    • Tense Formative θη (1st Aorist) or η (2nd Aorist)
      • The presence of θη is a fairly reliable indicator of the Aorist Passive
      • Important to recognize the Tense Formative, due to variation in the Tense Stem
      • Stops will aspirate before the Tense Formative θη (24.10 and footnote 5)
      • No connecting vowels. (Why?) – Tense Formative ends with a vowel
    • Secondary Active Endings (not Passive)
      • Alternative ending -σαν in 3rd Plural
  • Paradigms for Aorist Passive
    • 1st Aorist Passive – 24.4-5
    • 2nd Aorist Passive – 24.11-12
  • Formation of Future Passive – Aorist Passive Tense Stem + Tense Formative (θησ or ησ) + Connecting Vowel + Primary Middle/Passive personal endings
    • Aorist Passive Tense Stem (no augment – why? Not Past Time)
    • Tense Formative θης (1st Future) or ης (Second Future)
      • Sigma is adding for the Future, just as in the Active
    • Connecting Vowel (ο/ε)
    • Primary Passive Endings
      • -θησαν is Aorist Passive 3rd Plural, not Future Passive – only exception to the θης pattern.
  • Translate Future Passive – λυθήσομαι → “I will be loosed”
    • Simple (undefined) aspect
  • Paradigms for Future Passive
    • 1st Future Passive – 24.14-15
    • 2nd Future Passive – 24.18-19
  • Deponent Futures may be Middle in form or Passive in Form (24.17)
    • Compare γενήσομαι (Middle Form) and φοβηθήσομαι (Passive Form) – both deponents (Active meaning), “I will become” and “I will be afraid” respectively
  • Read Exegetical Insight on p. 212

Review New Vocabulary

  • Note that you are now learning 4 principal parts
  • After next week you will be learning all 6
  • Learn the 6th Principal Part for all verbs (Previous words p.219 ff.)

Review principal parts (pp. 370-380)

Look at chapter 25 workbook exercises


  • Final Exam is 4 weeks away. It will cumulatively cover the entire year’s work:
    • Review Noun Rules, 1st, 2nd, 3rd declensions, etc. as well as everything from this semester
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 24 on Aorist and Future Passive, and complete workbook exercise 24 on the same
    • Know the 6th Principal Part, Aorist Passive, for all verbs
    • Identify of the components of the Aorist Passive and the Future Passive
    • Parsing of verbs, especially Aorist Passives and Future Passives
    • Given a verb form, be able to identify its Tense, Voice, and Lexical Form
    • Translation
    • All memory verses, including 2 Corinthians 3.17
  • Study chapter 25 on the Perfect Indicative
  • Lexical Aids: Appendix II pp 79-85 on compound verbs. Part I pp.1-10 – make sure you know all words with NT occurrences > 150. Pay special attentive to the derivatives
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along
  • Memory Passasge: 2 Corinthians 3.17

ὁ δὲ κύριος τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν· οὗ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα κυρίου, ἐλευθερία.

The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη