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Review and Addenda

Review of Present Indicative Middle and Passive

  • Voice describes relationship between the verb and the subject:
    • Active – Subject does the action, e.g. “I hit the ball”
    • Passive – Subject receives the action, e.g. “I was hit by the ball” (agency, “by” often clues you in to the Passive voice)
      • English uses “helping verbs” to indicate the Passive Voice, e.g. I am being taught
      • In Greek the agent in a passive verb is expressed by either ὑπό + the genitive, e.g. ὑπ’ Ἄνδρέου “by Andrew” (18.10)
      • or simple Instrumental Dative, e.g. λογῷ τοῦ θεοῦ “by the Word of God”
    • Middle – Subject does the action, and the action somehow returns to the subject, e.g. “I hit the ball (to myself)”
  • You can review English verb tenses in Mounce’s Appendix
  • In the Present Tense, Middles and Passives have the same form (this is not true in all tenses)
  • Present Passive
    • Formed by Present Tense Stem + Connecting Vowel + Primary Passive Personal Endings
    • Formed same as Present Active Indicative, except the Primary Passive Personal Endings are used
    • Learn and Review the paradigm in 18.7
   λύ ομαι (μαι)       
   λύ ῃ (σαι)       
   λύ εται (ται)       
 
   λυ όμεθα (μεθα)       
   λύ εσθε (σθε)       
   λύ ονται (νται)       
  • Connecting vowels are more visible than in the Active
  • 2nd Person Singular – λυ + ε + σαι – sigma drops out, εαι contracts to ῃ
  • Aspect can be Simple or Continuous, just like Present Active, e.g. “I am hit” or “I am being hit”
  • Present Middle
    • Formed the same as present passive. See paradigm in 18.16
    • Majority of Present Middles, about 75%, in NT are deponent
  • Deponent Verbs – Middle/Passive in form, Active in meaning (18.11)
    • From the Latin deponens “laying aside” since the Middle Voice is “laid aside”
    • You can always tell if a verb is deponent by its lexical form (always middle or passive)
    • Verb may be deponent in one tense, and not in another
    • When you parse a deponent, indicate “deponent” for voice, rather than “Active” or “Middle”
  • Contract Forms of Middle/Passive verbs (Mounce 18.18)
    • Follow the rules of contraction

    Future Active and Middle

    • Koine Greek has 7 Tenses: Present, Imperfect, Future, Aorist, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect
      • The last 2, Pluperfect (Past Perfect) and Future Perfect, are rare
      • You have learned the Present, now we are learning the Future.
      • The seven tense are not the same as the 6 Principal Parts (19.4,5), which are Present Active, Future Active, Aorist Active, Perfect Active, Perfect Middle/Passive, Aorist Passive
      • The basic form of the verb in each of the 6 Principal Parts in called the Tense Stem
        • All forms of the verb for a given tense, are built using a specific Tense Stem
        • Mounce includes the Imperfect Tense in this list, though it is not one of the Principal Part because it is built off the Present Tense Stem.
    • The Future Tense indicates action that occurs in the future (from speaker’s or writer’s point of view)
      • Of all the Greek tenses, the Future has the strongest sense of Time
      • remember that all Greek verbs tenses denote both Time and Aspect, and the latter is usually the more important of the two — but not so with the Future Tense
      • Aspect is therefore most often Simple (Undefined) e.g. “I shall study” rather than “I shall be studying”
      • Normally translate using the words “will” or “shall” (19.14)
      • Exegetical Insight, chapter 19 – borrowing from Hebrew idiom, Greek futures can be used you to give a command, e.g. “you will not steal”
      • See Exegesis section at the end of the chapter on different uses of the Future
      • The Future Active is the 2nd principal part (19.5), i.e. the 2nd form listed in the lexical entry.

    Forming the Future

    There are 4 patterns for forming the Future – we are learning the 1st pattern for now, the one in which the Future Tense Stem of the Future is the same as the Present Tense Stem (19.18,19)

    • Roots ending in ι or υ e.g ἀκούω
    • Contract Verbs (more on this below)
    • Roots ending in a stop (more on this below)

    Formation of the Future Indicative Active (19.8-13)

    • Future Active Tense Stem + Tense Formative σ + Connecting Vowel (ο/ε) + Primary Active Personal endings
    • The Future Active Tense Stem is derived from the 2nd of the 6 Principal Parts (tense forms)
    • Principal Parts e.g. λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα, λέλυμαι, ἐλύθην
    • As with the Present, you drop the ending, including the connecting vowel, from the Principal Part, to get the Tense Stem
    • The Future Tense Stem for Pattern 1 is the same as the Present Tense (19.9)
    • Tense Formative of the Future Tense is σ (19.10)
    • Connecting vowels are the same as in the Present (ο/ε) ο before μ or ν otherwise ε
    • Same endings as the Present (Primary Active)
    • Learn the paradigm in 19.13

    Formation of the Future Indicative Middle (19.20-22)

    • Future Active Tense Stem + Tense Formative σ + Connecting Vowel (ο/ε) + Primary Passive Personal endings
    • Unlike the Present, the Middle and Passive forms are distinct in the Future Tense
    • All Middles we will learn for awhile will be deponent(active in meaning)
    • Verbs which are not deponent in the Present, can be deponent in the Future
      • e.g γινώσκω, γνώσομαι …
      • Learn the paradigm of the deponent future of εἰμί in 19.19
    • Learn the paradigm in 19.22

    Contract Verbs in the Future (19.15)

    • We know what happens when the Contract Vowel (final letter of verb stem: α,ε,ο) meets with a connecting vowel, as in the present: they contract
    • When the Contract Vowel, does not encounter a vowel, but another consonant, the Contract Vowel lenghtens
      • α → η
      • ε → η
      • ο → ω
      • This is the case in the future, because the Contract Vowel meets the Tense Formative σ
      • ἀγαπάω, ἀγαπήσω
      • The accent will always be over the lengthened Contract Vowel
      • This is not restricted to the Future, but the Future is an example of this rule applied

    Verb stems which end with a stop

    • Apply The Square of Stops to see how it will combine with the Tense Formative σ (19.16)
    Type Voiceless Voiced Aspirate With Sigma
    Labials π β φ + σ => ψ
    Velars(Palatals) κ γ χ + σ => ξ
    Dentals τ δ θ + σ => σσ => σ

    Future Deponents

    • Whether a verb is deponent in any tense does not depend on whether it is deponent in any other tense
    • That said, in Pattern 1 Futures, which use the same stem as their Present tense, if a verb is deponent in the Present, it will usually also be deponent in the Future.
    • Verify by learning Principal Parts when you memorize verbs

    Future of εἰμί (19.24)

    • Middle deponent
    • Root is εσ
    • Follows predictable pattern, but you must know it

    The Square of Stops (BBG 10.17-20)

    Type Voiceless Voiced Aspirate Spirant Double (With Sigma)
    Labials π β φ + σ => ψ
    Velars(Palatals) κ γ χ + σ => ξ
    Dentals τ δ θ + σ => σσ => σ

    Master Verb Ending Chart (BBG p.352)

    Voice Primary
    Tenses
               Secondary
    Tenses
     
     
    Active          
      λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
      λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
      λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
     
      λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
      λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
      λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
     
    Middle & Passive
     
     
      λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
      λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
      λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
     
      λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
      λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
      λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)

    Master Indicative Verb Chart (BBG p.354)

    Verb Tense Augment/
    Reduplication
    Tense
    Stem
    Tense
    Formative
    Connecting
    Vowel
    Personal
    Endings
    1st Person
    Singular
     
    Present Active Present ο/ε Primary Active λύω
    Present Middle/Passive Present ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λύομαι
     
    Imperfect Active ε Present ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλυον
    Imperfect Middle/Passive ε Present ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυόμην
     
    Future Active Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Active λύσω
    Liquid Future Active Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Active μενῶ
    Future Middle Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive πορεύομαι
    Liquid Future Middle Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive μενοῦμαι
    1st Future Passive Aorist Passive θησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λυθήσομαι
    2nd Future Passive Aorist Passive ησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive ἀποσταλήσομαι
     
    1st Aorist Active ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Active ἔλυσα
    1st Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυσάμην
    1st Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive θη Secondary Active ἐλύθην
    Liquid Aorist Active ε Aorist Active α Secondary Active ἔμεινα
    2nd Aorist Active ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλαβον
    2nd Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐγενόμην
    2nd Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive η Secondary Active ἐγράφην
     
    1st Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κα Primary Active λέκυκα
    2nd Perfect Active λε Perfect Active α Primary Active γέγονα
    Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Passive Primary Middle/Passive λέκυμαι

    Review New Vocabulary

    • βασιλέυς – example of nouns formed with -ευς to denote the person associated. See Lexical Aids p. 52 et al.
    • Note the stems of verbs when learning vocabulary
    • Note how Future lengthens Contract vowels, e.g. γεννάω, προσκυνέω
    • γεννάω in Matthew 1

    Assignments

    • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
    • Quiz next week on chapter 19
      • All vocabulary
      • How form the Future (4 components)
      • Paradigm of Future Active
      • Paradigm of Future Middle
      • How to identify Future deponent
      • How to form Contract Verbs in the Future
      • How to apply the Square of Stops in Formation of the Future
      • Be able to parse everything
      • Translation usually from workbook exercises, possible extra credit for knowing book, chapter and verse
      • Future of εἰμί
      • One more week on memory verse
    • Study chapters 19, and complete workbook exercise 19
    • Read chapter 20 on Verbal Roots, and other forms of the Future
    • Mid-term Exam in 3 weeks – will cover chapters 1-20, esp. chapters 15-20
    • Lexical Aids: No new assignments. Part I pp.1-10 – make sure you know all words with NT occurrences > 150. Pay special attentive to the derivatives
    • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along
    • Memory Passage: John 14.6

    λέγει αὐτῷ [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς· ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· οὐδεὶς ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸν πατέρα εἰ μὴ δι᾿ ἐμοῦ.

    The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

    Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
    τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
    καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
    ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.