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Review and Addenda

Review of Contract Verbs

  • DEFINITION: Contract verbs are verbs which have stems ending in α, ε, or ο (alpha, epsilon and omicron), e.g. ἀγαπάω
  • The final vowel of the verb stem (α, ε, or ο) is called the Contract Vowel and combines with with the connecting vowel and contracts to from a vowel or diphthong
  • Contract verbs are categorized by the three stem vowels (α, ε, or ο), and in each category the forms are consistent
  • Contraction occurs only in 2 tenses: The Present and the Imperfect (chapter 21), both of which are built on the Present Tense Stem
  • RULES OF CONTRACTION generalized (17.5)
  • ου <- εο οε οο
  • ει <- εε
  • ω <- ο_ ω_ _ο _ ω (almost any combination of ο or ω with any other vowel(s) )
  • α <- αε ( ᾳ <- αει )
  • η <- εα (ῃ <- εαι)
  • οι <- οει
  • Contraction of Diphthongs (17.5.7)
    1. Double letters simplify, i.e. one of the two drops out ει <- ε ει
    2. Final iotas subscript, if possible
    3. Final upsilons drop off
  • Contract verbs contract based on the visible endings, not the actual ones
  • RULES OF CONTRACTION by stem (see Mounce General Appendix, for full table)
    • Alpha Contracts (α) – ἀγαπάω
      • α + ε = α
      • α + ει = ᾳ
      • α + ο = ω
      • α + ου = ω
    • Epsilon Contracts (ε) – ποιέω (by far the most common)
      • ε + ε = ει
      • ε + ει = ει
      • ε + ο = ου
      • ε + ου = ου
    • Omicron Contracts (ο) – πληρόω
      • ο + ε = ου
      • ο + ει = οι
      • ο + (anything else) = ω
  • The paradigm for Present Active Indicate contract verbs (17.6)
    • Work through the paradigms, applying the rules to actual verb forms (ἀγαπάω, ποιέω, πληρόω) explaining all the contractions
    • There is almost always a circumflex over contracted vowels. Since the accent of verbs is recessive the circumflex helps you recognize that a particular verb form is a contract, because the circumflex accent is on the ultima, i.e. two syllable have been combined into one
    • The Contracted Endings are recognizable, and almost the same as with non-contract verbs
    • Remember the rules for connecting vowels, as it will help you determine which kind of contract stem (α, ε, or ο) you are dealing with. (17.8)
  • See Smyth on Contract Verbs

Present Indicative Middle and Passive

  • Voice describes relationship between the verb and the subject:
    • Active – Subject does the action, e.g. “I hit the ball”
    • Passive – Subject receives the action, e.g. “I was hit by the ball” (agency, “by” often clues you in to the Passive voice)
      • English uses “helping verbs” to indicate the Passive Voice, e.g. I am being taught
      • In Greek the agent in a passive verb is expressed by either ὑπό + the genitive, e.g. ὑπ’ Ἄνδρέου “by Andrew” (18.10)
      • or simple Instrumental Dative, e.g. λογῷ τοῦ θεοῦ “by the Word of God”
    • Middle – Subject does the action, and the action somehow returns to the subject, e.g. “I hit the ball (to myself)”
  • You can review English verb tenses in Mounce’s Appendix
  • In the Present Tense, Middles and Passives have the same form (this is not true in all tenses)
  • Present Passive
    • Formed by Present Tense Stem + Connecting Vowel + Primary Passive Personal Endings
    • Formed same as Present Active Indicative, except the Primary Passive Personal Endings are used
    • Learn and Review the paradigm in 18.7
   λύ ομαι (μαι)       
   λύ ῃ (σαι)       
   λύ εται (ται)       
 
   λυ όμεθα (μεθα)       
   λύ εσθε (σθε)       
   λύ ονται (νται)       
  • Connecting vowels are more visible than in the Active
  • 2nd Person Singular – λυ + ε + σαι – sigma drops out, εαι contracts to ῃ
  • Aspect can be Simple or Continuous, just like Present Active, e.g. “I am hit” or “I am being hit”
  • Present Middle
    • Formed the same as present passive. See paradigm in 18.16
    • Majority of Present Middles, about 75%, in NT are deponent
  • Deponent Verbs – Middle/Passive in form, Active in meaning (18.11)
    • From the Latin deponens “laying aside” since the Middle Voice is “laid aside”
    • You can always tell if a verb is deponent by its lexical form (always middle or passive)
    • Verb may be deponent in one tense, and not in another
    • When you parse a deponent, indicate “deponent” for voice, rather than “Active” or “Middle”
  • Contract Forms of Middle/Passive verbs (Mounce 18.18)
    • Follow the rules of contraction
  • See Smyth on Verb Voices

    Master Verb Ending Chart (BBG p.352)

    Voice Primary
    Tenses
               Secondary
    Tenses
     
     
    Active          
      λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
      λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
      λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
     
      λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
      λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
      λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
     
    Middle & Passive
     
     
      λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
      λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
      λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
     
      λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
      λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
      λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)

    Master Indicative Verb Chart (BBG p.354)

    Verb Tense Augment/
    Reduplication
    Tense
    Stem
    Tense
    Formative
    Connecting
    Vowel
    Personal
    Endings
    1st Person
    Singular
     
    Present Active Present ο/ε Primary Active λύω
    Present Middle/Passive Present ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λύομαι
     
    Imperfect Active ε Present ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλυον
    Imperfect Middle/Passive ε Present ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυόμην
     
    Future Active Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Active λύσω
    Liquid Future Active Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Active μενῶ
    Future Middle Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive πορεύομαι
    Liquid Future Middle Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive μενοῦμαι
    1st Future Passive Aorist Passive θησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λυθήσομαι
    2nd Future Passive Aorist Passive ησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive ἀποσταλήσομαι
     
    1st Aorist Active ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Active ἔλυσα
    1st Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυσάμην
    1st Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive θη Secondary Active ἐλύθην
    Liquid Aorist Active ε Aorist Active α Secondary Active ἔμεινα
    2nd Aorist Active ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλαβον
    2nd Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐγενόμην
    2nd Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive η Secondary Active ἐγράφην
     
    1st Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κα Primary Active λέκυκα
    2nd Perfect Active λε Perfect Active α Primary Active γέγονα
    Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Passive Primary Middle/Passive λέκυμαι

    Review New Vocabulary

    • Indefinite Relative Pronoun
    • Deponent verbs
    • Total word count > 70%

    Assignments

    • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
    • Quiz next week on chapter 18
      • Components of Passive Middle/Passive Indicative
      • Define deponent verbs, know how to identify them
      • The paradigm for Present Middle/Passive Indicative
      • How agency is expressed in Greek
      • How the 2nd person singular, Present Middle/Passive Indicative contracts
      • Translation – mainly taken from Workbook exercises
    • Study chapters 18, and complete workbook exercise 18
    • Read chapter 19 on the Future Indicative Middle/Passive
    • Lexical Aids: Part I pp.1-10 – make sure you know all words with NT occurrences > 150. Pay special attentive to the derivatives
    • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along
    • Memory Passage: John 14.6

    λέγει αὐτῷ [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς· ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· οὐδεὶς ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸν πατέρα εἰ μὴ δι᾿ ἐμοῦ.

    The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

    Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
    τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
    καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
    ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.