χαῖρετε μαθηταί

Review μι-verbs (Athematic) – Indicative of δίδωμι

  • The “athematic” conjugation
    • The thematic conjugation is what we have learned to date. (34.2)
      • It is so called because of it uses the thematic vowel, what we have called the “connecting” vowel
    • The word “a-thematic” uses the Greek alpha-privative (like English “non-”) which negates. (34.3)
      • a-thematic, i.e. no thematic vowel
      • e.g. a-theist, a-gnostic, a-moral, a-typical, etc.
    • Hence what characterizes the athematic conjugation, a.k.a. the μι–verbs, is that is does not use connecting vowels. (See Rule 2 below)
  • μι-verbs come in 4 classes, based on their stem vowel: (See Smyth on μι-verbs)
    • stems in ο, e.g. δίδωμι (stem δο) – See paradigm in 34.11
    • stems in α, e.g. ἵστημι (stem στα)
    • stems in ε, e.g. τίθημι (stem θε)
    • stems in υ, e.g. δείκνυμι (stem δεικνυ)
  • The patterns for μι verbs are the same in all four classes

The 5 Rules of μι verb (athematic) Recognition

  1. μι-verbs reduplicate in the Present, inserting an iota (34.6)
    • e.g. stem *δο => διδο
    • It is therefore essential that you learn the root of all μι-verbs, as reduplication occurs only with the Present Tense stem (Present and Imperfect)
    • Distinguished from the Perfect reduplication, because the Perfect reduplicates with an epsilon
  2. μι-verbs are athematic. They do not use “connecting” vowels in most forms. (34.7)
    • Exception are the Imperfect and the Future (See 34.11)
  3. μι-verbs have Present Active endings similar to standard Primary endings, but with some variations (34.8)
    • 1st singular, and 3rd singular and plural vary (μι, σι, ασι)
    • All other tense use same endings as the thematic conjugation, if you have learned the true endings, e.g. σαι in 2nd personal singular, primary middle/passive.
  4. μι-verb stems vowels can lengthen, shorten or drop out (ablaut),
    • See 34.11 to compare length of stem vowel in different forms
  5. μι-verbs usually use κα as tense formative in the Aorist (34.10)
    • Hence these are known as “kappa aorists”
    • Distinguished for Perfects because Perfects have reduplication

Examples of Indicatives of δίδωμι

  • καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· ταῦτά σοι πάντα δώσω, ἐὰν πεσὼν προσκυνήσῃς μοι (Matthew 4.9) Future Active, 3rd class condition, Future More Probable
  • ἄλλα δὲ ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν τὴν καλὴν καὶ ἐδίδου καρπόν, ὃ μὲν ἑκατόν, ὃ δὲ ἑξήκοντα, ὃ δὲ τριάκοντα. (Matthew 13.8) Imperfect
  • Αἰτεῖτε καὶ δοθήσεται (Matthew 7.7) Future Passive
  • ἐπείνασα γὰρ καὶ ἐδώκατέ μοι φαγεῖν (Matthew 25.35) Aorist Active (kappa Aorist)
  • ὁ πατὴρ ἀγαπᾷ τὸν υἱὸν καὶ πάντα δέδωκεν ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ. (John 3.35) Perfect Active
  • ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· ὅτι ὑμῖν δέδοται γνῶναι τὰ μυστήρια τῆς βασιλείας τῶν οὐρανῶν, ἐκείνοις δὲ οὐ δέδοται (Matthew 13.11) Perfect Passive, Complementary Infinitive
  • Work through applying the rules to the examples at the end of 34.11

Non-Indicative of δίδωμι

  • Non-indicative forms of δίδωμι
    • NOTE: While the Indicative mood use the 1st Aorist forms (kappa Aorist), all the oblique moods (non-Indicative) use 2nd Aorists
    • Subjunctive (35.1)
      • all forms have the contracted ῶ
      • Present and Aorist distinguished by the stem only, e.g. δίδω vs. δῶ
    • Imperative (35.2)
      • No thematic (connecting) vowel, so imperative endings are added directly to the stem
    • Infinitive (35.3)
      • Same as thematics, except in Present and 2nd Aorist Active where ending is ναι, instead of ειν
    • Participle (35.4)
      • Standard 3-1-3 and 2-1-2 adjectival patterns, endings are predictable
  • Study athematic paradigms in appendices on BBG pp. 360-366 (bottom half of pages)
  • See Smyth on μι verbs

The Optative Mood (35.10)

  • Whereas the Subjunctive is the mood of probability or possibility, the Optative is the mood of wish
    • One step more removed from reality (Indicative)
  • See Smyth on Suffixes in the Optative
  • Tense indicates aspect only (Present = Continuous, Aorist = Simple) – there is no time significance
  • Formation of the Optative
    • No time significance, therefore no augment
    • Connecting vowel is omicron in Present and 2nd Aorist
      • As with several other paradigms, the 2nd Aorist is formed like the Present – therefore you must distinguish by the stem
    • Tense formative in the Aorist is σα for Active/Middle and θε for Passive, ε for 2nd Aorist Passive
    • Mood formative is ι in thematic conjugation, and ιη in athematic
    • Uses Secondary personal endings (see BBG p.354)

Master Verb Ending Chart (BBG p.352)

Voice Primary
Tenses
           Secondary
Tenses
 
 
Active          
  λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
  λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
  λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
 
  λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
  λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
  λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
 
Middle & Passive
 
 
  λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
  λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
  λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
 
  λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
  λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
  λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)
  • Hence regular patterms occur:
    • Present has οι (connecting vowel + mood formative) + endings
    • 1st Aorist has σαι and θει (tense formative + mood formative) + endings
    • 2nd Aorist Active/Middle is the same the Present
    • 2nd Aorist Passive is ει (tense formative + mood formative)

Conditional Clauses in Greek

  • There are four classes of conditions in Greek (BBG 35.5-8, GGBB 687-701, Smyth §2280-2368)
  • Conditions can be classified according to Form i.e. how the sentence is structured, or Function i.e. with reference to their meaning (Time, Fulfillment or not, Particular or General)

Conditions Classified by Form

Type Description Protasis (“if”) Apodosis (“then”)
First Class Condition of Fact
i.e. assumed true
εἰ + indicative any mood,
any tense
Second Class Contrary to Fact εἰ + indicative ἄν + indicative
same tense as protasis
Third Class More Probable ἐάν + subjunctive any mood,
any tense
Fourth Class Less Probable εἰ + optative ἄν + optative

1st Class – Condition of Fact

  • Protasis: εἰ + indicative, any tense, negated by οὐ;
  • Apodosis: any mood, any tense
  • Assumed true for the sake of argument, not that it is actually true. A supposition of reality

    • This is important exegetically.
    • Example: εἰ δὲ ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν, οὐδὲ Χριστὸς ἐγήγερται· (1 Corinthians 15.13)

2nd Class – Past Contrary to Fact

  • Protasis: εἰ + indicative, any tense, negated by μή;
  • Apodosis: ἄν + indicative, same tense as protasis
  • assumed untrue for the sake of argument, presumed to be contrary to fact
  • Example: εἰ γὰρ ἐπιστεύετε Μωϋσεῖ, ἐπιστεύετε ἂν ἐμοί· (John 5.46)

3rd Class – Future More Probable

  • Protasis: ἐάν + subjunctive, any tense, negated by μή;
  • Apodosis: any mood, any tense
  • Future More Probable

    • Example: ταῦτά σοι πάντα δώσω, ἐὰν πεσὼν προσκυνήσῃς μοι. (Matthew 4.9)

  • Present General (aka Fifth Class Condition)

    • Generic truth in present time

    • Example: ἐάν τις περιπατῇ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, οὐ προσκόπτει (John 11.9)

4th Class – Future Less Probable

  • Protasis: εἰ + optative, Present or Aorist
  • Apodosis: ἄν + optative, Present or Aorist
  • Example: ἀλλ᾿ εἰ καὶ πάσχοιτε διὰ δικαιοσύνην, μακάριοι. (1 Peter 3.14)

Exegetical Insights

ὅτι ἐξ αὐτοῦ καὶ δι᾿ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα·
αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν. (Romans 11.36)

The great theological import of 3 small prepositions

New Vocabulary

This is the new vocabulary which is in BBG 3rd edition, but not the 2nd. You are responsible for these, so add them to your flash card stack. For those using the 2nd edition, you can look these up in any lexicon to, including the short one at the back of your book, to review principal parts, verbal roots, κτλ.

  • ἁγιάζω – I consecrate, sanctify
  • ἁμαρτάνω – I sin
  • ἁμαρτωλός, -όν – sinful; noun: sinner
  • ἀνάστασις, -εως, ἡ = resurrection
  • ἀπαγγέλλω – I report, tell
  • διακομέω – I serve
  • διακονία, -ας, ἡ – service
  • διαιόω – I justify, vindicate, constitute righteous
  • θλῖψις, -εως, ἡ – affliction, tribulation
  • ἱλαστήριον, -ου, τό – propitiation, expiation, place of propitiation, “mercy seat”
  • σταυρόω – I crucify
  • σωτήρ, ῆρος, ὁ – savior, deliverer
  • σωτηρία, -ας, ἡ – salvation, deliverance (cf. soteriology)
  • φανερόω – I reveal, make known
  • φόβος, -ου, ὁ – fear, reverence

Scripture Memory for next class

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· (Matthew 6.9–11)

Assignments

  • Weekly Memorization: Matthew 6.9-11
  • Review past passages
  • Workbook exercises on chapter 35
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 35 – Non-Indicative forms of δίδωμι
    • know the roots of the athematic verbs
    • parse any athematic form
    • types of conditions
    • memory verses
  • Read Chapter 36 on other athematics
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able
  • Try reading the sermon text in advance each week before the Lord’s Day
  • Make plans to acquire the required texts for the 2nd half of the semester

Overview of resources for 4th semester

Required

Recommended

  • A good NT Lexicon, preferably BAGD. If you cannot afford BAGD, you can ask the διδάσκαλος concerning other alternatives. There are online lexical resources you can use, but you really should have a hard copy lexicon if at all possible. These are used copies of the 2nd edition for much less money.
  • Morphology of Biblical Greek – (MBG) is a compendium of the paradigms of Greek grammar which when used will help you to recognize the patterns in what is a very regular language.

The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.