χαῖρετε μαθηταί

Review Imperatives

  • The mood of command
    • A direct command, as to a subordinate
    • When addressing a superior, such as God, Imperative of Entreaty, (33.17) e.g. Matt 6.10 – ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου
  • Tense: occurs in the Present (Continuous aspect), the Aorist (Simple aspect) and rarely in the Perfect (33.20) (Completed aspect)
    • as with all non-indicative moods, the tense of the Imperative has no time significance, only aspect
  • Person: occurs in both the 2nd person(direct command), and 3rd person.
    • 2nd person, e.g. βλέπε “Look!” or λέγει αὐτῷ Φίλιππος· ἔρχου καὶ ἴδε (John 1.46) “Come and see”
    • 3rd person, e.g. βλεπέτω “Let him look” or “He must look” or ἐάν τις διψᾷ ἐρχέσθω πρός με καὶ πινέτω. (John 7.37) “Let him come” and “let him drink”
  • Formation of the Imperative (33.5-8)
    • Present: Present Stem + Connecting Vowel + Imperative Morpheme
    • Aorist: (Unaugmented) Aorist Stem + Tense Formative (σα/θη) + Imperative Morpheme
    • 2nd Aorist: (Unaugmented) 2nd Aorist Stem + Imperative Morpheme (33.10)
      • Morpheme is same as Present in Active and Middle
      • Morpheme is same as 1st Aorist in Passive, but no Tense Formative (θη)
    • Morphemes should be memorized. Everything else is quite regular
    • Note: 2nd singular forms should be memorized
      • they seem to be irregular, but are not really.
      • See MBG #71-72, p. 143ff.
        • Intervocalic σιγμα drops out, and vowels contract regularly
        • In 2nd person singular middle/passive: λυ + ε + σο => λυεο => λύου
        • 2nd singular Aorist Active form is not easily explainable: λῦσον
      • All things considered, it is probably easier just to memorize the 2nd singular forms

Particple Morphemes – learn from the following chart (33.6-7)

Imperative (BBG p.356, 365)

  Active & and Aorist Passive Middle/Passive  
2 sg    ε   σο
3 sg    τω   σθω
2 pl    τε   σθε
3 pl    τωσαν   σθσαν
  • Deponent verbs have deponent imperatives
    • The Present Imperative, 2nd Personal singular of ἔρχομαι is ἔρχου, e.g. λέγει αὐτῷ Φίλιππος· ἔρχου καὶ ἴδε. (John 1.46)
  • Review the paradigm (33.8)
  • Contract verbs contract regularly (stem vowel + connecting vowel) for Present Imperatives (33.11, p.366)
  • εἰμί Present Imperatives are built off of εσ (33.12) – you must learn these forms.
  • Ambiguous forms – 2nd person plural, Active and Middle, are the same in the Imperative as in the Indicative (33.9)
    • Present: ετε, εσθε – context must determine
      • e.g. John 14.1 – Μὴ ταρασσέσθω ὑμῶν ἡ καρδία· πιστεύετε εἰς τὸν θεὸν καὶ εἰς ἐμὲ πιστεύετε (Imperative must determined by context – The 3rd person imperative ταρασσέσθω gives help)
      • e.g. Mark 11.22 – καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγει αὐτοῖς· ἔχετε πίστιν θεοῦ. (again Imperative is determined by context)
    • Aorist: σατε, σασθε – the Imperative will have no temporal augment
    • 2nd person singular Aorist Active Imperative looks like Aorist Infinitive
      • e.g. λῦσαι

Review Six ways to express prohibition (33.18)

  1. οὐ + Future Indicative = a general prohibtion, e.g. “You shall not steal”
    • e.g. Καὶ ὅταν προσεύχησθε, οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί, (Matthew 6.5)
    • cf. Matthew 19.18, Matthew 20.27, I Peter 1.16
    • See GGBB p.569ff.
  2. μή + Present Imperative = prohibits a continuous action, usually attitude or general precept/conduct, e.g. “Do not gossip”
    • e.g. μὴ φοβοῦ, μόνον πίστευε. (Mark 5.36)
    • cf. also Romans 6.12
  3. μή + Aorist Imperative = simple prohibition, usually for a specific case, to cease some action, e.g. “Stop talking during class”
    • e.g. μὴ οὖν ὁμοιωθῆτε αὐτοῖς· οἶδεν γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὧν χρείαν ἔχετε πρὸ τοῦ ὑμᾶς αἰτῆσαι αὐτόν. (Matthew 6.8)
  4. μή + Aorist Subjuctive = Prohibitive Subjunctive stronger prohibition (“No!”)
    • e.g. μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι εἶπόν σοι· δεῖ ὑμᾶς γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν. (John 3.7)
    • cf. also Matthew 1.20, Romans 10.6, Rev. 22.10
    • See GGBB p.469
  5. οὐ μή + Aorist Subjuctive = Emphatic Negation, even stronger prohibition (“Certainly Not! Never!”)
    • e.g. καὶ πᾶς ὁ ζῶν καὶ πιστεύων εἰς ἐμὲ οὐ μὴ ἀποθάνῃ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. πιστεύεις τοῦτο; (John 11.26)
    • See GGBB, p. 468ff.
  6. μή + Optative = strong negative wish,
    • e.g. Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; ἐπιμένωμεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, ἵνα ἡ χάρις πλεονάσῃ; 2 μὴ γένοιτο. (Romans 6.1–2) μή γένοιτο (“May it never be!”)

μι-verbs (Athematic)

  • The “athematic” conjugation
    • The thematic conjugation is what we have learned to date. (34.2)
      • It is so called because of it uses the thematic vowel, what we have called the “connecting” vowel
    • The word “a-thematic” uses the Greek alpha-privative (like English “non-”) which negates. (34.3)
      • a-thematic, i.e. no thematic vowel
      • e.g. a-theist, a-gnostic, a-moral, a-typical, etc.
    • Hence what characterizes the athematic conjugation, a.k.a. the μι–verbs, is that is does not use connecting vowels. (See Rule 2 below)
  • μι-verbs come in 4 classes, based on their stem vowel: (See Smyth on μι-verbs)
    • stems in ο, e.g. δίδωμι (stem δο) – See paradigm in 34.11
    • stems in α, e.g. ἵστημι (stem στα)
    • stems in ε, e.g. τίθημι (stem θε)
    • stems in υ, e.g. δείκνυμι (stem δεικνυ)
  • The patterns for μι verbs are the same in all four classes

The 5 Rules of μι verb (athematic) Recognition

  1. μι-verbs reduplicate in the Present, inserting an iota (34.6)
    • e.g. stem *δο => διδο
    • It is therefore essential that you learn the root of all μι-verbs, as reduplication occurs only with the Present Tense stem (Present and Imperfect)
    • Distinguished from the Perfect reduplication, because the Perfect reduplicates with an epsilon
  2. μι-verbs are athematic. They do not use “connecting” vowels in most forms. (34.7)
    • Exception are the Imperfect and the Future (See 34.11)
  3. μι-verbs have Present Active endings similar to standard Primary endings, but with some variations (34.8)
    • 1st singular, and 3rd singular and plural vary (μι, σι, ασι)
    • All other tense use same endings as the thematic conjugation, if you have learned the true endings, e.g. σαι in 2nd personal singular, primary middle/passive.
  4. μι-verb stems vowels can lengthen, shorten or drop out (ablaut),
    • See 34.11 to compare length of stem vowel in different forms
  5. μι-verbs usually use κα as tense formative in the Aorist (34.10)
    • Hence these are known as “kappa aorists”
    • Distinguished for Perfects because Perfects have reduplication

Examples of Indicatives of δίδωμι

  • καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· ταῦτά σοι πάντα δώσω, ἐὰν πεσὼν προσκυνήσῃς μοι (Matthew 4.9) Future Active, 3rd class condition, Future More Probable
  • ἄλλα δὲ ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν τὴν καλὴν καὶ ἐδίδου καρπόν, ὃ μὲν ἑκατόν, ὃ δὲ ἑξήκοντα, ὃ δὲ τριάκοντα. (Matthew 13.8) Imperfect
  • Αἰτεῖτε καὶ δοθήσεται (Matthew 7.7) Future Passive
  • ἐπείνασα γὰρ καὶ ἐδώκατέ μοι φαγεῖν (Matthew 25.35) Aorist Active (kappa Aorist)
  • ὁ πατὴρ ἀγαπᾷ τὸν υἱὸν καὶ πάντα δέδωκεν ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ. (John 3.35) Perfect Active
  • ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· ὅτι ὑμῖν δέδοται γνῶναι τὰ μυστήρια τῆς βασιλείας τῶν οὐρανῶν, ἐκείνοις δὲ οὐ δέδοται (Matthew 13.11) Perfect Passive, Complementary Infinitive
  • Work through applying the rules to the examples at the end of 34.11

New Vocabulary

  • δίδωμι – what English words might be derived from the root δο? (donate, donor, etc.)
  • ἔθηος – derived words: ethnic, ethnocentric, ethnography, etc.
  • λοιπός – Latin etc. (et cetera) “and other things” vs. Greek κτλ. (καὶ τὰ λοιπά) “and the rest”
  • πίπτω – note verbal root. Present reduplicates. In other forms ταυ drops out. Both 1st and 2nd Aorists.
  • ὑπάρχω – another verb of being, besides εἰμι (another μι verb, but irregular)

Scripture Memory for next class

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου,
ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς· (Matthew 6.9–10)

Assignments

  • Weekly Memorization: Matthew 6.9-10
  • Review past passages
  • Complete workbook exercise 34 on Indicative forms of δίδωμι
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 34 – Indicative forms of δίδωμι
    • 5 rules for recognizing athematic verbs
    • the term “athematic”
    • verbal roots of μι verbs
    • principal parts of δίδωμι
    • ability to parse any Indicative form of δίδωμι
    • all vocabulary
  • Read chapter 35 on the Non-Indicative forms of δίδωμι
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able
  • Make plans to acquire the required texts for the 2nd half of the semester

Overview of resources for 4th semester

Required

Recommended

  • A good NT Lexicon, preferably BAGD. If you cannot afford BAGD, you can ask the διδάσκαλος concerning other alternatives. There are online lexical resources you can use, but you really should have a hard copy lexicon if at all possible. These are used copies of the 2nd edition for much less money.
  • Morphology of Biblical Greek – (MBG) is a compendium of the paradigms of Greek grammar which when used will help you to recognize the patterns in what is a very regular language.

The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.