χαῖρετε μαθηταί

Review and Addenda

  • Participles are verbal adjectives, having characteristics of both verbs and adjectives (26.1-2)
    • in English, we form participles by adding -ing to a verb, e.g. in English reading, praying, working, playing sleeping
      • Note examples of verbal and adjectival characteristics in 26.1-2, 10
    • As Verbs
      • participles have Tense (Present, Aorist, Perfect) (26.11)
      • and Voice (Active, Middle, Passive, Deponent) (26.12)
      • if a verb is deponent, its participle will be also
      • Participles are usually negated by μή rather than ὀυ since ὀυ negates the indicative, and participles are not indicative (26.16)
      • No personal endings, since participles are not limited by a subject (26.17)
    • Ad Adjectives
      • like all adjectives, participles agree with what they modify in what? Case, Gender and Number (26.13)
      • The subject of a participle can be discovered by what seeing what it agrees with in the sentence (26.14)
    • Hence Participles have both tense and case
    • Parse: Case, Gender, Number, Tense, Voice, “Participle”, Lexical Form, Inflected Meaning (26.18)
      • e.g. λύοντες: Present Active Participle, Nominative Masculine Plural of λύω, “loosing”
      • Participle is not technically a “Mood”
  • The modifiers of a participle (direct object, adverbs, prepositional phrases) make up the participial phrase. (26.3, 26.15)
    • e.g. “reading the book” “praying earnestly” “working hard for a living” etc.
    • in translation, it is important to clearly demarcate the beginning and the end of participial phrase, since it will function in the sentence as a whole unit
    • as with other syntactical elements, so with participles, English relies on word order, Greek on inflection, elements (26.4, 26.13)
  • Greek is very fond of participles – they are used far more in Greek than in English, and often strung together where we would use compound sentences. You cannot master Greek without mastering the particple (26.5)
    • We will be studying participles for the next 5 chapters (26-30)
    • most of the grammar is in this chapter
    • forms and uses in following chapters (26.19)
    • participles follow normal 1st, 2nd and 3rd declension endings for adjectives
  • Formation (26.7-8)
    • participles can be built on any verb
    • tense stem + (connecting vowel) + participle morpheme + case endings
    • the participle morpheme (smallest unit of meaning in word formation)
      • ντ for Present and Aorist participles
      • οτ for Perfect participles
  • ASPECT i.e. type of action (26.9)
    • This is the essence of the Greek participle, the key to understanding its meaning.
    • Remember the Greek verb tense includes both the ideas of time and aspect
    • With the participle, tense indicates aspect only, not the time the action occurs
      • Present: Continuous
      • Aorist: Undefined (or Simple)
        • Aorist has no temporal augment, since Tense indicates only aspect, not time
      • Perfect: Completed
  • As verbal adjectives, participles can be used either adverbially or adjectivally (26.2, 26.10)
    • Adverbial – the action of the participle is directed toward the verb
      • usually translated with an adverbial phrase, e.g. “While sitting on the window sill, Eutychus fell asleep”
    • Adjectival – modifies a noun or pronoun
      • usually translated with an adjectival phrase, e.g. “The parchment stored in the library belonged to Paul”
    • Give some other examples in English of participles used adverbially and adjectivally “While studying…” “Sitting in the chair”
    • Whether a participle is adverbial or adjectival is determined by? … Context.
    • English gerunds – participles functioning as nouns, e.g. “Knowing God is our highest aim.”
    • Greek does not have a gerund distinct from the participle, instead Greek uses the articular infinitive, e.g “To know God is our highest aim” (sidebar, p. 239)

Present Adverbial Participles

  • Present Participle indicates Continuous Aspect
    • Participles have no absolute time element, since they are not Indicative.
    • Participles do have relative time, in that they derive time from the main verb. (27.11-19)
      • Participles are syntactical servants, and as such they submit to the tense of the main verb
    • Hence, in translation, Aspect must be the first and foremost consideration
    • Present Participle is called “present” because it is built on the Present Tense stem, not because of any time element
  • Review: There are 2 types of participles, adverbial and adjectival
  • Adverbial Particples say something about the action of the main verb
    • Therefore you normally translate them with an adverbial clause
      • Temporal – e.g. “while he was walking…”
        • Translated with English words ‘while’ or ‘after’
        • Shows ‘when’ something happened.
        • Mark 9:5 ‘All the crowd, seeing Him, were amazed.’ (“When all the crowd saw Him, they were amazed.”)
      • Causal – e.g. “because he was preoccupied…” or “since I am leaving…”
        • Indicates the Cause or Reason
        • Answers the question “Why?”
        • Translated by ‘because’ (or ‘since’)
        • John 4:6 “Jesus, being wearied, sat.” (‘Because Jesus was wearied, He sat.’)
  • Agreement – even adverbial participles must agree with a noun or pronoun in Case, Gender and Number
    • The the noun or pronoun may be explicitly stated, but it also may be implicit in the verb
    • The noun or pronoun doing or receiving the action (subject), though technically participles do not have subjects (27.21) but they depend upon the subject of the main verb
  • Voice of the Participle
    • if active, the noun or pronoun with which the participle agrees does the action, e.g. “while reading the book…”
    • if passive, the noun or pronoun with which the participle agrees receives the action, e.g. “being filled with joy…” (use the English word “being” when translation passive participles)
    • consider voice in your translation, after you have determined aspect
  • No Article – Adverbial Participles are always anarthrous (no article) – this is often helpful is determining if a participle is being used adverbially or adjectivally
  • Formation of Present Participle (27.4):
    • Present Tense Stem + Connecting vowel + Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
      • (Review Master Case Ending chart)
      • e.g. πιστευ + ο + ντ + ες = πιστεύοντες
    • Participle Morphemes (27.4)
      • ντ – Active masculine and neuter, is 3rd declension
      • ουσα – Present Feminine
      • μενο/η – Middle/Passive
      • οτ – Perfect (Chapter 30)
    • learn the Six Forms to help in learning all Particple Paradigms (27.6)
      • Note how we arrive at Nominative Singular Masculine and Neuter forms.
    • Paradigm of Present Active Participle (27.5-10, p.367)
      • like 3-1-3 ending adjective
      • very similiar to πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν (p.349)
      • Contract Verb forms are regular (27.8)
      • Paradigm of εἰμί follows this pattern
      • What important English word(s) are derived from this participle?
        • Ontology, ontological.
        • Where would Anselm be without this?
    • Paradigm of Present Middle/Passive Particple (27.11-12)
      • same as any 2-1-2 ending adjective, once you know the particple morpheme
  • Translation of Participles: 1) Discover Aspect, 2) then Voice, 3) then Meaning (27.13-14)
    • Adverbial Clauses (see Exegesis section at end of chapter 27)
      • Temporal – e.g. “while he was walking…”
        • Translated with English words ‘while’ (present) or ‘after’ (aorist)
        • Shows ‘when’ something happened.
        • Answers the question “When?”
        • Acts 1.4 “While staying with them, he charged them”
        • Matt 4.2 “After fasting…he was hungry” (Aorist)
      • Causal – e.g. “because he was preoccupied…” or “since I am leaving…”
        • Indicates the Cause or Reason
        • Answers the question “Why?”
        • Translated by ‘because’ (or ‘since’)
        • John 4:6 “Jesus, being wearied, sat.” (‘Because Jesus was wearied, He sat.’)
        • Acts 16.34 “He was filled with joy…having believed…” (…because he believed.)
      • Manner – e.g. “smiling he recounted the story…”
        • Answers the question ‘In what way?’ or ‘How?’
        • Matt. 19.22 “…he went away grieving”
      • Instrumental (Means) – e.g. “giving good words, he encouraged the church”
        • Answers the question “With what?” or “How?”
        • Translated with ‘by’ or ‘by means of’
        • 1 Cor. 4.12 – “We toil by working with our own hands”
        • Matt. 27:4 – “I have sinned by betraying innocent blood.”
      • Purpose (Telic)
        • Indicates the purpose of the action of the finite verb
        • Answers the questions ‘Why?’
        • Should be translated with the English ‘infinitive’ or ‘with the purpose of’ or ‘in order to’. A simple ‘-ing’ translation misses the point.
        • A future adverbial participles always belong here.)
        • Luke 10:25 “A certain lawyer stood up testing Him (in order to test Him), saying, ‘Teacher, what must I do to gain eternal life?’”
      • Concessive
        • Indicates that the action of the main verb is true in spite of the state or action of the participle.
        • Usually translated ‘although’
        • Romans 1:21 “although they knew God, they did not glorify (honor) Him as God.”
        • 1 Peter 1:8 “whom having not seen (although you have not seen Him), you love”
    • with Passive Voice, you will usually use “being” in translation, e.g. “A reed, being shaken by the wind…” (Matt. 11.7)

Master Case Ending Chart (BBG Appendix, ~ p.345)

First and Second Declension Third Declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masc / Fem Neuter
           
Nom Sg ς - ν ς / - -
Gen Sg υ ς υ ος ος
Dat Sg ι ι ι ι ι
Acc Sg ν ν ν α / ν -
           
Nom Pl ι ι α ες α
Gen Pl ων ων ων ων ων
Dat Pl ις ις ις σι(ν) σι(ν)
Acc Pl υς ς α ας α

Master Participle Chart (BBG p.355)

Morpheme Tense/Voice Case Endings
ντ all Active and Aorist Passive 3-1-3
οτ Perfect Active 3-1-3
μενο/η all Middle/Passive and all Middle 2-1-2
Tense and Voice Redup. Tense
Stem
Tense Form. or
Conn. Vowel
Morpheme Nom. Plural Six Memory Forms
 
Present Active Present ο ντ / ουσα λέγοντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
Present Middle/Passive Present ο μενο / η λεγόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
1st Aorist Active Aorist
Active
σα ντ / σα λύσαντες σας, σασα, σαν
σαντος, σασης, σαντος
1st Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
σα μενο / η λυσάμενοι σαμενος, σαμενη, σαμενον
σαμενου, σαμενης, σαμενου
1st Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
θε ντ λυθέντες θεις, θεισα, θεν
θεντος, θεισης, θεντος
2nd Aorist Active Aorist
Active
ο ντ βαλόντες ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
2nd Aorist Middle Aorist
Active
ο μενο / η γενόμενοι ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
2nd Aorist Passive Aorist
Passive
ε ντ γραφέντες εις, εισα, εν
εντος, εισης, εντος
Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κ οτ λελυκότες κως, κυια, κος
κοτος, κυιας, κοτος
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Midddle/Passive μενο / η λελυμένοι μενος, μενη, μενον
μενου, μενης, μενου

Workbook Exercise #27

New Vocabulary

  • cf. ἀναβαίνω and καταβαίνω (I go up, and I go down) consider compound verbs in Lexical Aids, Appendix II
  • compound noun ἀρχιερεύς
  • English derivatives of δέξιος, e.g. ‘ambidextrous’ = “two right hands”
  • Etymology of ἑτερόδοξος vs. ὀρθόδοξος
  • εὐαγγελίζω – ευ (good) + ἀγγελίζω (announce) – ‘good newsing’
  • κάθημαι – I sit. cf. ex cathedra
  • παρακαλέω – lit. I call beside, the Holy Spirit is the παρακλήτης
  • τρεῖς, τρία – “triad”

Exegetical Insight

2 Cor. 3.18 ἡμεῖς δὲ πάντες ἀνακεκαλυμμένῳ προσώπῳ τὴν δόξαν κυρίου κατοπτριζόμενοι τὴν αὐτὴν εἰκόνα μεταμορφούμεθα ἀπὸ δόξης εἰς δόξαν καθάπερ ἀπὸ κυρίου πνεύματος.

  • ἀνακεκαλυμμένῳ – ἀνακαλύπτω (ἀνά, καλύπτω) perfect middle participle neuter singular dative: to uncover, disclose
  • κατοπτριζόμενοι – κατοπτρίζω (κατά, ὁράω) Verb present middle participle masculine plural nominative to look, reflect

Assignments

  • Complete workbook exercise 27
  • Prepare for quiz next week on chapter 27 – Present Adverbial Participles
    • Know paradigm of Present Active Participle, i.e. the six memory forms (27.7)
      • Hence also Present Active Participle of εἰμι (27.10)
    • Know paradigm of Present Middle/Passive Participle, i.e. the six memory forms (27.12)
    • Memorize Master Participle Chart (27.16)
    • All vocabulary
    • Translation from Workbook exercises
    • Any of the memory passages
  • Study chapter 28 on Aorist Adverbial Participles
  • Begin workbook exercise 28 on the same
  • Review all 6 principal parts for all verbs to date, also check Lexical Aids, Appendix IV
  • Review Lexical Aids, Appendix II, on Compound Verbs
  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along as you are able

The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.