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Review and Addenda

Review The Second Aorist

  • Definition of Aorist (ἀορίστος) : Undefined aspect usually in past time
    • The Aorist is not punctiliar by nature (22.19)
    • Etymology of “Aorist”
      • Alpha privative (negation) examples (atheist, agnostic, amoral, etc.)
      • verb ὁρίζω – determine, appoint, fix, set limits to, define
      • α + ὁριστος = undefined
    • Translate as English simple past tense, e.g. “I ate” “I ran”
    • Indefinite – states only the fact that the action occurred, and nothing else
    • Compare with Imperfect which says something very definite about the action, viz. that its aspect is continuous
  • Aorist Indicative Active is the 3rd Principal Part (or Tense Form) of 6 (22.8)
    • Verbal roots and Principal Parts must be memorized exactly
    • See Previous Words on page 200
    • 2nd Aorist deponents – the 3rd Principal Part has Middle/Passive ending
  • 2 ways of forming the Aorist: 1st Aorist (regular) (chapter 23) and the 2nd Aorist (irregular)
    • Greek verb will have one or the other form, but not both (a few exceptions)
    • There is no difference in meaning between 1st and 2nd Aorist
    • 1st Aorist is considered regular, cf. in English, look, looked
    • 2nd Aorist is considered irregular, cf. in English swim, swam
    • 2nd Aorist is identical to the Imperfect in formation, except for the tense stem
  • Formation of the 2nd Aorist Active (22.5-6)
    • Augment ε – follows the same rules as for the Imperfect
    • 2nd Aorist Tense Stem (unmodified Verbal Root)
    • Connecting Vowel (same as the Present Tense, cf 16.5)
    • Secondary Active Endings (why? because this tense uses the augment)
      • 2nd Aorist has no Tense Formative
  • Formation of the 2nd Aorist Middle (22.14-15)
    • Augment ε – follows the same rules as for the Imperfect
    • 2nd Aorist Tense Stem (unmodified Verbal Root)
    • Connecting Vowel (same as the Present Tense, cf 16.5)
    • Secondary Middle/Passive Endings (why? because this tense uses the augment)
      • 2nd Aorist has no Tense Formative
      • 2nd Aorist deponents – the 3rd Principal Part has Middle/Passive ending
      • As with the Future, the Aorist has a different Tense stem for the Passive (the 6th Principal Part) (22.17)
  • 2nd Aorist & Present Active tense stems will ALWAYS be different (22.8)
    • Verbal Root is always modified to form the present, e.g βαλ → βαλλ and λαβ → λαμβαν.
      • See other examples in 22.8
    • The 2nd Aorist Tense Stem almost always uses the unmodified Verbal Root for its tense stem
    • This is how you can distinguish an Imperfect from a 2nd Aorist, which both have the augment and secondary endings – The 2nd Aorist looks like the Imperfect except for the Tense Stem (22.6,11,15)
    • Compare λαμβάνω in Imperfect and 2nd Aorist: ἐλαμβάνον vs. ἔλαβον, ἔβαλλον vs. ἔβαλον. Which is which?
    • When translating, focus on the Tense Stem first to avoid confusing the Imperfect with the 2nd Aorist
    • See page 397 of all verbs occurring > 50 times in NT, which have 2nd Aorists
  • List of most common 2nd Aorist verbs on pp. 382-383
  • Exegesis Section – Different uses of the Aorist
  • See Smyth on the 2nd Aorist

First Aorist

  • 1st Aorist is the regular form
    • Most Greek verbs follow this pattern
      • The 2nd Aorist alters the Tense Stem from the Present (usually to Verbal Root)
      • The 1st Aorist does not alter the Present Tense Stem, but instead uses the Tense Formative σα
      • 1st Aorist Tense Stem is usually identical to Present Tense Stem
    • There is no difference in meaning between the 1st and 2nd Aorist — Simple Past
    • Aspect of the Aorist is Undefined
    • All Aorists have the Augment ε, and therefore all use Secondary Endings
  • Formation of the 1st Aorist Active (23.4-5, 23.17-18)
    Augment + First Aorist Tense Stem + Tense Formative + Secondary personal endings
    • Augment is ε, just as in he Imperfect and 2nd Aorist
    • 1st Aorist Tense Stem (normally the same as the Present Tense Stem, and the Verbal Root)
    • Tense Formative σα (Note that there are no connecting vowels since Tense Formative ends with a vowel)
      • Easy to identify in the Active – alters only in 3rd person singular, where the α changes to ε
      • Aorist has distinct forms for the Middle and Passive, like the Future tense – Middle is formed the same way, except using the Secondary Middle/Passive endings
      • Usual situation in the 2nd person middle: intervocalic sigma drops out and α + ο = ω (23.18)
      • when Tense Formative is preceded by a stop, square of stops applies, including -ιζω and -αζω verbs (chart on 23.11)
      • Contract verbs lengthen their stem vowels in before the Tense Formative, just as in the Future (23.10)
      • Liquid Stems use α for Tense Formative, instead of σα (23.13-14)
    • Secondary Endings – importance of memorizing the actual endings, e.g. if you have been then you already know these endings

The Square of Stops (BBG 10.17-20)

Type Voiceless Voiced Aspirate Spirant Double (With Sigma)
Labials π β φ + σ => ψ
Velars(Palatals) κ γ χ + σ => ξ
Dentals τ δ θ + σ => σσ => σ

Master Verb Ending Chart (BBG p.352)

Voice Primary
Tenses
           Secondary
Tenses
 
 
Active          
  λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
  λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
  λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
 
  λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
  λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
  λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
 
Middle & Passive
 
 
  λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
  λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
  λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
 
  λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
  λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
  λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)

Master Indicative Verb Chart (BBG p.354)

Verb Tense Augment/
Reduplication
Tense
Stem
Tense
Formative
Connecting
Vowel
Personal
Endings
1st Person
Singular
 
Present Active Present ο/ε Primary Active λύω
Present Middle/Passive Present ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λύομαι
 
Imperfect Active ε Present ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλυον
Imperfect Middle/Passive ε Present ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυόμην
 
Future Active Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Active λύσω
Liquid Future Active Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Active μενῶ
Future Middle Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive πορεύομαι
Liquid Future Middle Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive μενοῦμαι
1st Future Passive Aorist Passive θησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λυθήσομαι
2nd Future Passive Aorist Passive ησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive ἀποσταλήσομαι
 
1st Aorist Active ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Active ἔλυσα
1st Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυσάμην
1st Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive θη Secondary Active ἐλύθην
Liquid Aorist Active ε Aorist Active α Secondary Active ἔμεινα
2nd Aorist Active ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλαβον
2nd Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐγενόμην
2nd Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive η Secondary Active ἐγράφην
 
1st Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κα Primary Active λέκυκα
2nd Perfect Active λε Perfect Active α Primary Active γέγονα
Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Passive Primary Middle/Passive λέκυμαι
  • Recognizing Liquid Aorists (23.13-15)
    • final stem consonant is a liquid ( μ ν λ ρ )
    • Tense Formative is α, not σα
    • Tense stem is sometimes modified, e.g. μένω
    • Liquid Tenses only occur in Future and Aorist
    • See list of Liquid Verbs on p.381
  • Sometimes you will find 2nd Aorist stems with 1st Aorist endings – Koine Greek was in the process of standardization (23.12)
  • Aorist has distinct form for the Middle voice and the Passive voice, as does the Future
  • You can recognize an Aorist deponent, because its lexical form (3rd Principal Part) will end with -μην
  • Translation of Aorists (23.3) – like the simple English past tense, e.g. ‘I studied’.
  • Exegetical Insight – Aorist is sometimes punctiliar, when context so indicates
  • See Smyth on 1st Aorist

Review New Vocabulary

  • another compound verb with ἔρχομαι
  • ἄρχω – has an actual middle meaning – occurs mostly in the middle
  • διό is a crasis (contraction) of δία ὅ = ‘on account of which thing’, hence ‘therefore, for this reason’
  • δύναμις – See footnote on coming exegetical fallacy
  • Learn the Aorists for previous vocabulary

Look at chapter 24 workbook exercises

Assignments

  • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
  • ΑΝΑΣΤΑΣΙΣ (Easter) break next week
  • Prepare for quiz in 2 weeks on chapter 23 on 1st Aorist and complete workbook exercise 23 on First Aorist
    • All vocabulary to date
    • How to form 1st Aorists
    • Know 3rd Principal part (Aorist Active Indicative) for any given verb
    • Parsing, especially 1st Aorists
    • Translation
    • All memory verses to date, including the new one.
  • Study chapter 24 on Aorist and Future Passive Indicative
  • Learn 3rd principal part (Aorist Indicative Active) for all verbs
  • Lexical Aids: Appendix II pp 79-85 on compound verbs. Part I pp.1-10 – make sure you know all words with NT occurrences > 150. Pay special attentive to the derivatives
  • Continue taking your Greek NT to church with you, and follow along
  • Memory Passasge: 2 Corinthians 3.17

ὁ δὲ κύριος τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν· οὗ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα κυρίου, ἐλευθερία.

The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.