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Review and Addenda

Review of Future Active and Middle

  • Koine Greek has 7 Tenses: Present, Imperfect, Future, Aorist, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect
    • The last 2, Pluperfect (Past Perfect) and Future Perfect, are rare
    • You have learned the Present, now we are learning the Future.
    • The seven tense are not the same as the 6 Principal Parts (19.4,5), which are Present Active, Future Active, Aorist Active, Perfect Active, Perfect Middle/Passive, Aorist Passive
  • The basic form of the verb in each of the 6 Principal Parts in called the Tense Stem
    • All forms of the verb for a given tense, are built using a specific Tense Stem
    • Mounce includes the Imperfect Tense in this list, though it is not one of the Principal Part because it is built off the Present Tense Stem.
  • The Future Tense indicates action that occurs in the future (from speaker’s or writer’s point of view)
    • Of all the Greek tenses, the Future has the strongest sense of Time
    • remember that all Greek verbs tenses denote both Time and Aspect, and the latter is usually the more important of the two — but not so with the Future Tense
    • Aspect is therefore most often Simple (Undefined) e.g. “I shall study” rather than “I shall be studying”
    • Normally translate using the words “will” or “shall” (19.14)
    • Exegetical Insight, chapter 19 – borrowing from Hebrew idiom, Greek futures can be used you to give a command, e.g. “you will not steal”
    • See Exegesis section at the end of the chapter on different uses of the Future
    • The Future Active is the 2nd principal part (19.5), i.e. the 2nd form listed in the lexical entry.

    Review Forming the Future

    There are 4 patterns for forming the Future – this is the 1st pattern, the one in which the Future Tense Stem of the Future is the same as the Present Tense Stem (19.18,19)

    • Roots ending in ι or υ e.g ἀκούω
    • Contract Verbs (more on this below)
    • Roots ending in a stop (more on this below)

    Review Formation of the Future Indicative Active (19.8-13)

    • Future Active Tense Stem + Tense Formative σ + Connecting Vowel (ο/ε) + Primary Active Personal endings
    • The Future Active Tense Stem is derived from the 2nd of the 6 Principal Parts (tense forms)
    • Principal Parts e.g. λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα, λέλυμαι, ἐλύθην
    • As with the Present, you drop the ending, including the connecting vowel, from the Principal Part, to get the Tense Stem
    • The Future Tense Stem for Pattern 1 is the same as the Present Tense (19.9)
    • Tense Formative of the Future Tense is σ (19.10)
    • Connecting vowels are the same as in the Present (ο/ε) ο before μ or ν otherwise ε
    • Same endings as the Present (Primary Active)
    • Learn the paradigm in 19.13

    Review Formation of the Future Indicative Middle (19.20-22)

    • Future Active Tense Stem + Tense Formative σ + Connecting Vowel (ο/ε) + Primary Passive Personal endings
    • Unlike the Present, the Middle and Passive forms are distinct in the Future Tense
    • All Middles we will learn for awhile will be deponent(active in meaning)
    • Verbs which are not deponent in the Present, can be deponent in the Future
      • e.g γινώσκω, γνώσομαι …
      • Learn the paradigm of the deponent future of εἰμί in 19.19
    • Learn the paradigm in 19.22

    Review Contract Verbs in the Future (19.15)

    • We know what happens when the Contract Vowel (final letter of verb stem: α,ε,ο) meets with a connecting vowel, as in the present: they contract
    • When the Contract Vowel, does not encounter a vowel, but another consonant, the Contract Vowel lenghtens
      • α → η
      • ε → η
      • ο → ω
      • This is the case in the future, because the Contract Vowel meets the Tense Formative σ
      • ἀγαπάω, ἀγαπήσω
      • The accent will always be over the lengthened Contract Vowel
      • This is not restricted to the Future, but the Future is an example of this rule applied

    Verb stems which end with a stop

    • Apply The Square of Stops to see how it will combine with the Tense Formative σ (19.16)
    Type Voiceless Voiced Aspirate With Sigma
    Labials π β φ + σ => ψ
    Velars(Palatals) κ γ χ + σ => ξ
    Dentals τ δ θ + σ => σσ => σ

    Future Deponents

    • Whether a verb is deponent in any tense does not depend on whether it is deponent in any other tense
    • That said, in Pattern 1 Futures, which use the same stem as their Present tense, if a verb is deponent in the Present, it will usually also be deponent in the Future.
    • Verify by learning Principal Parts when you memorize verbs

    Master Verb Ending Chart (BBG p.352)

    Voice Primary
    Tenses
               Secondary
    Tenses
     
     
    Active          
      λύ ω (-)   ἔ λυ ο ν (ν)
      λύ εις (ς)   ἔ λυ ε ς (ς)
      λύ ει (ι)   ἔ λυ ε(ν) (-)
     
      λύ ο μεν (μεν)   ἐ λύ ο μεν (μεν)
      λύ ε τε (τε)   ἐ λύ ε τε (τε)
      λύ ουσι(ν) (νσι)   ἐ λυ ο ν (ν)
     
    Middle & Passive
     
     
      λύ ο μαι (μαι)   ἐ λυ ό μην (μην)
      λύ ῃ (σαι)   ἐ λύ ου (σο)
      λύ ε ται (ται)   ἐ λύ ε το (το)
     
      λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)   ἐ λυ ό μεθα (μεθα)
      λύ ε σθε (σθε)   ἐ λύ ε σθε (σθε)
      λύ ο νται (νται)   ἐ λύ ο ντο (ντο)

    Verbal Roots and Tense Stems (20.2-5)

    • The Verbal Root is most basic form of a verb, it is not the same as the Verbal Tense Stem
    • The Verbal Root is given in the vocabulary when you learn a new verb, e.g. *αγαπα
      • Memorize the verbal root of a verb, as well as the lexical form
    • The Tense Stem is basic form of the verb in a particular tense
    • The different Tense Stems (Present, Future, Aorist…) are all derived from the Verbal Root
      • it is critical that you grasp this, or you will become quite confused and make things much more difficult
    • The Present Tense Stem may be the same as the Verbal Root, e.g. λυ → λυ but often it is altered, e.g. βαλ → βαλλ – Again, all the Tense Stems are derived from the Verbal Root, not from the Present Tense Stem
      • In fact, the Present Tense Stem is the most irregular of all the Tense Stems
      • Note the example of βάλλω (20.5)

    Four patterns for the Future

    • Memorize the patterns for the 1st Principal Part (Present Tense Stem)
    1. Root not modified (20.6), i.e. the Present Tense Stem is the same as the Verbal Root
      • Verbal Roots ending in iota or upsilon, e.g. ἀκου -» ἀκούω
      • Contract Verbs
      • Roots ending in a stop
      • Present Tense Stem is normally the same as Future Tense Stem
    2. Different Roots (20.7)
      • Linguistic consolidation of verbs
      • e.g. ὁράω, ὄψομαι – the future or the former stopped being used, as did the present of the latter, so they combined
      • See other examples in 20.7
      • happens often when one Tense is deponent and another isn’t
      • You must memorize both roots
    3. Liquid Futures (20.8-18)
      • Liquid verbs are those whose verbal stem ends in a liquid (λ,μ,ν,ρ)
      • Tense stem is usually different than the present, e.g. Present βαλλ and Future βαλ
      • Tense Formative for Liquid Futures is εσ instead of plain σ
        • Sigma does not like to stand between 2 vowels, so it drops out
        • The remaining epsilon of the Tense Formative contracts with the Connecting Vowel
      • Always has circumflex accent over the contracted vowel, except in 1st Plural Middle, e.g. μενούμεθα
      • Learn the Liquid Future paradigms in 20.11-14
        • Note that Liquid Futures look the same as Present of epsilon Contract Verbs – so you must distinguish them by knowing the lexical form (20.15)
      • Present Liquids have no contraction
      • “Consonants carry the meaning of words, not vowels+ (20.23) cf. Lexical Aids pp. 76-77 (Grimm’s Law)
    4. Verbal Root Modified Regularly (20.20-24)
      • Root endings in a stop (20.21)
        • stems ending in dentals ιζω / αζω verbs, e.g. βαπτιδ → βαπτίζω in which final δ changes to ζ for euphony
          • dental drops out before Tense Formative σ according to the Square of Stops
        • stems ending in velars, ασσω verbs, e.g. ταραχ → ταράσσω
          • velar + sigma forms ξ according to the Square of Stops
        • originally consonantal iota was added to root to from the Present Tense Stem (20.27)
      • Double consonants, e.g βαλ → βαλλω (20.22)
      • Letter(s) added to form the Present Tense, which are not added in other tenses (20.23)
        • Iota eg. αρ → αἴρω
          • metathesis = switching the order of the letters
        • (ι)σκ e.g. αποθαν → ἀποθνᾐσκω
      • Ablaut (20.24)
    • See pp 370 ff. for most common verbs – forms to be memorized are in blue, or underlined
    • Work through verbs on p. 177 in the Summary

    Master Indicative Verb Chart (BBG p.354)

    Verb Tense Augment/
    Reduplication
    Tense
    Stem
    Tense
    Formative
    Connecting
    Vowel
    Personal
    Endings
    1st Person
    Singular
     
    Present Active Present ο/ε Primary Active λύω
    Present Middle/Passive Present ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λύομαι
     
    Imperfect Active ε Present ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλυον
    Imperfect Middle/Passive ε Present ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυόμην
     
    Future Active Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Active λύσω
    Liquid Future Active Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Active μενῶ
    Future Middle Future Active σ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive πορεύομαι
    Liquid Future Middle Future Active εσ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive μενοῦμαι
    1st Future Passive Aorist Passive θησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive λυθήσομαι
    2nd Future Passive Aorist Passive ησ ο/ε Primary Middle/Passive ἀποσταλήσομαι
     
    1st Aorist Active ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Active ἔλυσα
    1st Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active σα Secondary Middle/Passive ἐλυσάμην
    1st Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive θη Secondary Active ἐλύθην
    Liquid Aorist Active ε Aorist Active α Secondary Active ἔμεινα
    2nd Aorist Active ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Active ἔλαβον
    2nd Aorist Middle ε Aorist Active ο/ε Secondary Middle/Passive ἐγενόμην
    2nd Aorist Passive ε Aorist Passive η Secondary Active ἐγράφην
     
    1st Perfect Active λε Perfect Active κα Primary Active λέκυκα
    2nd Perfect Active λε Perfect Active α Primary Active γέγονα
    Perfect Middle/Passive λε Perfect Passive Primary Middle/Passive λέκυμαι

    Additional Information

    • Compound Verbs (20.26)
      • Formed by preposition joined to a verb, e.g. ἐκβάλλω
      • Preposition in some way intensifies the meaning of the verb
    • Consonantal Iota (20.27)
      • Accounts for many of the changes in verbal tense stems
      • added to roots ending in a stop form the Present Tense stem – stop + ι => ιζω or ασσω
      • added to some roots ending in consonant, e.g. βαλ, consonant + ι => double consonant
      • added to some roots to form their Present Tense Stem, e.g. αἴρω. Metathesis occurs.

    Review New Vocabulary

    • Reminder: Read the footnotes!

    Assignments

    • Continue your life habit of reading Greek aloud from the Greek New Testament
    • Quiz next week on chapter 20
      • All vocabulary
      • Difference between Verbal Root and Tense Stem
      • Components of Liquid Futures
      • Why some verbs have different verbal roots in different tenses
      • Learn verbal roots for all verbs we have learned thus far
      • 4 patterns of the Future, and how they work
        • particularly the regular patterns of modification for Pattern 4
      • Be able to parse everything
      • Translation usually from workbook exercises, possible extra credit for knowing book, chapter and verse
      • No new memory verse, know all 4 memory verses to date.
    • Study chapters 20, and complete workbook exercise 20
    • Workbook Review #4 will be due week after next
    • Mid-term Exam in 2 weeks – will cover chapters 1-20, esp. chapters 15-20
    • Lexical Aids: No new assignments. Part I pp.1-10 – make sure you know all words with NT occurrences > 150. Pay special attentive to the derivatives
    • Continue taking your Greek New Testament to church with you, and follow along

    The Lord’s Prayer (Listen)

    Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
    ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου· ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου· γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
    τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον· καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
    καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
    ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.